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Walden PUBH6170 full course (All assignments +discussions+ quizess+ final exam)

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Question;Application;Biology of Energy Homeostasis;The;primary objective of this assignment is to introduce you to the major;biological concepts that are associated with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular;disease, and obesity. This Application focuses on the role of various;biological processes involved in the regulation of food intake, nutrition;energy homeostasis, and metabolism.;Complete the following steps.;?;Read;the article by Jeffrey Flier and Eleftheria Maratos-Flier, "What Fuels;Fat" as an introduction to the topic. This article explains the complex;biology of energy balance and the contribution different organs make in;regulating this process.;?;o;Flier, J. S., & Maratos-Flier, E.;(2007). What fuels fat. Scientific American, 297, 72-81. Retrieved;from the Walden Library Academic Search Premier database. (AN 17784627);?;Read Chapter 14, "The Digestive;System and Nutrition," in the course text Human Biology: Concepts;and Current Issues.;After;reading Flier's article and Chapter 14, think about the role of cellular and;molecular biology in regulation of food intake and nutrition, energy;homeostasis, and metabolism. Browse the review articles from the list provided;below, and choose an area of interest. Each article provides an overview of the;complex biochemical and molecular processes that help regulate different organ;systems in health and in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular;disease.;Please note, you are expected to read a selection of the review articles listed;below to gain a better or deeper understanding of the topic. However, for your;Application Assignment you must also find primary research articles in your;area of interest. You may use the review articles in your Application paper;but primary research is required for your research section. Using less than;three primary research articles will result in a deduction of points.;There are four biological focus areas provided. After familiarizing yourself;with the overall topics, choose the area that interests you and review those;articles. Then, please locate and use at least three appropriate primary;research articles, all of which are related to the same focus area.;Obesity and Energy Homeostasis;?;Cummings, D. E., & Overduin, J. (2007). Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake. Journal;of Clinical Investigation, 117, 13?23. Retrieved from the Walden Library;Academic Search Premier database. (AN 25218811);?;Drucker;D. J. (2006). The biology of incretin hormones. Cell Metabolism, 3;153-165. Retrieved from http://www.glucagon.com/pdfs/CellMetabolism2006.pdf;?;Flier, J. S. (2004). Obesity wars;Molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemic. Cell, 116;337?350. Click here to access the;article.;?;Hill, J. O. (2006). Understanding and;addressing the epidemic of obesity: An energy balance perspective. Endocrine;Reviews, 27, 750?761. Retrieved fromhttp://edrv.endojournals.org/content/27/7/750.full.pdf+html;Nutrition, Obesity, and Atherosclerotic;Cardiovascular Disease;?;McGavock, J. M., Victor, R. G., Unger;R. H., & Szczepaniak, L. S. (2006). Adiposity of the heart, revisited. Annals;of Internal Medicine, 144, 517-524. Retrieved from the Walden Library;Academic Search Premier database. (AN 20371697);?;Semenkovich, C. F. (2006). Insulin;resistance and atherosclerosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 116;1813?1822. Retrieved from the Walden Library Academic Search Premier database.;(AN 23151475);?;Berg, A. H., & Scherer, P. E.;(2005). Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation;Research, 96, 939?949. Retrieved fromhttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/96/9/939.full.pdf+html;?;Getz, G. S., & Reardon, C. A.;(2007). Nutrition and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis;Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 27, 2499?2506. Retrieved fromhttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/27/12/2499.full.pdf+html;?;Katagiri, H., Yamada, T., & Oka, Y.;(2007). Adiposity and cardiovascular disorders disturbance of the regulatory;system consisting of humoral and neuronal signals.Circulation Research, 101;27?39. Retrieved from http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/101/1/27.abstract;?;Lopaschuk, G. D., Folmes, C. D. L.;Stanley, W. C. (2007). Cardiac energy metabolism in obesity. Circulation;Research, 101, 335?347. Retrieved fromhttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/101/4/335.full.pdf+html;Obesity and Inflammation;?;Corvera;S., Burkart, A., Kim, J.-Y., Christianson, J., Wang, Z., & Scherer, P. E.;(2006). Keystone meeting summary: ' Adipogenesis, obesity, and inflammation;and 'Diabetes mellitus and the control of cellular energy metabolism,' January;21?26, 2006, Vancouver, Canada. Genes & Development, 20;2193?2201. Retrieved from http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/20/16/2193.full.pdf+html;?;Rana;J., Nieuwdorp, M., Jukema, J., & Kastelein, J. (2007). Cardiovascular;metabolic syndrome - an interplay of, obesity, inflammation, diabetes and;coronary heart disease. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, 9 (3);218-232. Retrieved from the Walden Library Academic Search Premier database (AN;24475620).;?;Schenk;S., Saberi, M., & Olefsky, J. (2008). Insulin sensitivity: modulation by;nutrients and inflammation. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 118 (9);2992-3002. Retrieved from the Walden Library Academic Search Premier database;(AN 34270623);Metabolic;Syndrome;?;Bagby, S. P. (2004). Obesity-initiated;metabolic syndrome and the kidney: A recipe for chronic kidney disease? Journal;of the American Society of Nephrology, 15, 2775-2791. Retrieved from http://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/15/11/2775.full.pdf+html;?;Unger, R. H. (2003). Minireview;Weapons of lean body mass destruction: The role of ectopic lipids in the;metabolic syndrome. Endocrinology, 144, 5159?5165. Retrieved from http://endo.endojournals.org/content/144/12/5159.full.pdf+html;?;Write a five page (body, double spaced);review of the topic from a public health biology perspective. In your review;include the following;?;ii.;Discuss the biological basis of energy;homeostasis, including an introduction to your chosen focus area;iii.;Discuss some of the recent (within five;years) and current research on the focus area you chose, including study aim;methods, and results of the studies you discuss;iv.;Explain the value and application of;the above research findings to public health, citing the studies as needed, and;providing some examples of how this information is or can be used in public;health policy, programs, and practice.;Your;paper must provide APA-formatted references for all resources used and adhere;to APA style and format. APA style headers will be expected for the three;subsections of biological basis, research, and public health application. Use;subheaders as needed. A title page and a reference page is required. An;abstract is optional. Use your APA manual, or get help from the Writing Center;if you need it.;Week 6 application;Application;Biology;of Asthma and Allergic Disease;The;primary objective of this assignment is to introduce you to the major;biological concepts that are associated with asthma and allergic disease. This;Application focuses on the role of various biological processes involved in the;chronic illnesses of asthma and allergy. Complete the following steps.;1. Read the article by Dale Umetsu and;Rosemarie DeKruyff, "The Regulation of Allergy and Asthma.;?;o;Umetsu;D. T., & DeKruyff, R. H. (2006). The regulation of allergy and asthma. Immunological;Reviews, 212(1), 238?255. Retrieved from the Walden Library Academic Search;Premier database. (AN 21667826);2. Read Chapter 10, "The Respiratory;System: Exchange of Gases" in the course text, Human Biology;Concepts and Current Issues.;3. Read a selection of the review articles;presented below to gain a better or deeper understanding of the topic and help;you choose a focus area. For your Application Assignment you must also find at;least three primary research articles in your area of interest. You may use the;review articles in your Application paper, but primary research is required for;your research section. Using less than three primary research articles will;result in a deduction of points.;In the first application, you were given some focus areas. This time, you will;do your own research to choose a biological focus, a specific area that;interests you. Examples may include the "hygiene hypothesis," windows;of exposure, nutrition and gastrointestinal flora, helminth infections, Tregs, and;NKT cells. Read the appropriate optional articles, and then locate additional;review and primary research articles on your area of interest.;o;Devereux;G. (2006). The increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergy: Food for;thought. Nature Reviews Immunology, 6(11), 869? 874.;Retrieved from the Walden Library Academic Search Premier database. (AN;22848496);o;Tantisira;K. G., & Weiss, S. T. (2006). The pharmacogenetics of asthma therapy. Current;Drug Targets, 7(12), 1697?1708. Retrieved from the Walden Library Academic;Search Premier database. (AN 23278588);o;Umetsu;D. T., Meyer, E. H., & DeKruyff, R. H. (2007). Natural killer T cells;regulate the development of asthma. International Reviews of;Immunology, 26(1/2), 121? 140. Retrieved from the Walden;Library Academic Search Premier database. (AN 24515668);o;Wohlleben, G., & Erb, K. J. (2006).;Immune stimulatory strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. Current;Pharmaceutical Design, 12(25), 3281?? 3292. Retrieved from the;Walden Library Academic Search Premier database. (AN 22139036);o;Yeatts;K., Sly, P., Shore, S., Weiss, S., Martinez, F., & Geller, A. et al.;(2006). A brief targeted review of susceptibility factors, environmental;exposures, asthma incidence, and recommendations for future asthma incidence;research. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(4), 634? 640. Retrieved from the Walden Library Academic Search Premier;database. (AN 20814567);4. Write a five page (body, double-spaced);review of the topic from a public health biology perspective. In your review;include the following:.;Explain;the biological basis of asthma and allergic disease, including an introduction;to your chosen focus area;i.;Discuss;some of the recent (within five years) and current research on the biological;focus area you chose, including study aim, methods, and results of the studies;you discuss;ii.;Explain;the value and application of the above research findings to public health;citing the studies as needed, and providing some examples of how this;information is or can be used in public health policy, programs, and practice.;Your;paper must provide APA-formatted references for all resources used and adhere;to APA style and format. APA style headers will be expected for the three;subsections of biological basis, research, and public health application. Use;subheaders as needed. A title page and a reference page is required. An;abstract is optional. Use your APA manual, or get help from the Writing Center;if you need it.;Note: This Application Assignment is;due by Day 7 of Week 9.;Week 1;Antibiotic;Resistance;Current research is showing that;antibiotic resistance is on the rise. In past years, people were less concerned;about overuse of antibiotics. Because of research, we now know that using;antibiotics when they are not necessary gives microbes a better chance to;mutate and gain resistance to that antibiotic. In addition, if you stop taking;the medicine before it has had the necessary time to kill off the majority of;the bacteria, the ones that are left are the ones that are most resistant to;the antibiotic. In essence, when you fail to complete a course of antibiotic;treatment, you are creating your own antibiotic resistant germs. This is why;most antibiotics are designed to be taken for longer than the time it may take;you to feel better.;In preparation for this week?s Discussion, review the required readings and;Health Watch: The Growing Threat of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria;from Chapter 1 in the textbook, Human Biology: Concepts and Current;Issues. Also consider this week's video segment in which Dr. Sharon Krag;and Dr. Fernando Guerra discuss the importance of public health professionals;understanding biological concepts.;With this in mind, think about why it is important for public health;professionals to understand the biological basis of antibiotic resistance.;Recall that primary research is an original document that is the first account;of what happened. A research report is primary, and you can tell because it;will have materials and methods, demonstrating how the research was done. Many;of the preselected articles in this class are review articles, which are;secondary. They are designed to give you an overview of the subject. In order;to understand and discuss the current research that is going on for any;particular topic, you will need to locate and read primary research articles;that are published in peer-reviewed, scholarly journals. Because public health;is an evidence-based discipline, strive to use primary research that is;published in scholarly, peer-reviewed journals.Post by Day 4 a response to this question;?;?;Provide an overview of the mechanisms;of antibiotic resistance.;?;?;Discuss at least one example of recent;published research aimed at understanding mechanisms of antibiotic resistance;and explain how knowledge about antibiotic resistance can be applied in public;health (remember that public health is not medical treatment of individuals, so;think in terms of education, programs, interventions, policies, development of;products used for prevention and treatment of populations, etc.).;Support your;discussion by citing at least one primary research article.Read your;colleagues? postings.;Week2;COLLAPSE;Top of Form;The;Skin As a Protective Barrier;As;you have learned this week, skin functions as a protective barrier and is;functional in several bodily processes. Your skin helps protect your body from;dehydration and injury, defends against invading bacteria and viruses, and;regulates the body?s temperature. Skin is the largest organ in the body. In;preparation for this week?s Discussion, consider both how the skin functions;and how it acts as a protective barrier.Post by Day 4 a response to the following;?;?;Provide;a concise description of the structure and function of the skin, using;molecular and cellular biological terms as appropriate.;?;?;Discuss at least one example of recent;published research regarding a health issue or disease that affects skin or for;which skin is a factor, and explain how it can be applied in public health.;Support;your examples by citing at least one primary research article.;Bottom of Form;Week3;Cycle;of Life;Thalidomide;is widely known as the anti-nausea drug that was given to pregnant women in the;1950s (Lepper, Smith, Cox, Scripture, & Figg, 2006). This drug was later;found to cause severe birth defects. However, today, based on the same mechanism;of action that led to the limb malformations, thalidomide is being researched;as a cancer drug (Gordinier et al., 2007). This highlights the importance of;understanding mechanisms of action, and of keeping an open mind as to;application of such knowledge. It also highlights how important the stage of;development is and the implications of increased sensitivity based on stage of;development.;In preparation for this week?s Discussion, consider the role of cellular and;molecular biology in aging and how the cycle of life presents different;opportunities for health risks. In Week 2, we discussed the skin. Although you;are encouraged to think about how material from this week applies to skin;please choose a different organ system for this Discussion.Post by Day 4 a response to the following;?;?;Choose;an organ system (not skin), and discuss one way in which the stage of;development or age of an individual relates to an increased sensitivity to;damage to that system. Be sure to explain the biological basis/mechanism of the;sensitivity.;?;?;Discuss;at least one example of recent, published research that has been done to;understand the sensitivity you described above, and explain how the findings;can be applied in public health.;Support your discussion by citing;at least one primary research article.;Week4;Genetic;Bases of Huntington?s disease;Post;by Day 4 a;response to the following;?;?;Explain;the genetic bases of Huntington?s disease and some of the research that is;going on to understand the disorder.;?;?;Provide;at least one example of how understanding the genetic basis of the disease can;be applied to public health policy, programs, and/or practice.;Support your discussion by;citing at least one primary research article.Read your colleagues' postings from another thread.;Week 5;Immunology;In;the 1920s the first vaccine for diphtheria was developed. Soon after, vaccines;for pertussis and tetanus toxoid were developed and in 1925 the three vaccines;were combined, becoming what is now known as the DTP vaccination. These;vaccinations were developed in an effort to reduce childhood morbidity and;mortality rates from infectious disease.;Vaccination programs have changed significantly since 1925, even in the past 10;years. Today, children receive not only the DTP and MMR vaccinations, but also;Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, HiB, Influenza, Polio, Varicella (chicken pox).;Additional vaccinations may also be recommended depending on a child?s health.;The readings this week focused on the body?s immune system and how vaccinations;can help the body protect against infectious disease. With these thoughts in;mind, consider at least one example of vaccination efforts for a particular;infectious disease (this could include efforts to create a vaccine).Post by Day 4 a response to the following;?;?;Choose;any disease except influenza for which a vaccine is relevant (either a vaccine;exists or is needed) and discuss how knowledge of immunology is applied to;public health policy, programs, and/or practice for that disease. You may not;choose influenza because it is the subject of week 7.;?;?;Include;any applicable discussion on the historical context of the disease, focusing on;vaccination and eradication efforts.;Support your discussion by;citing at least one primary research articl;Week 6;COLLAPSE;Top of Form;Pathogens;Most;people are familiar with how viruses can cause colds, and how bacteria is;linked to foodborne illness. Do you eat yogurt with live cultures? That is a;probiotic food. Microorganisms are not just "germs." The intestinal;track is an ecosystem unto itself, and we could not function without certain;microbes in our digestive track. This is why, sometimes when you take;antibiotics, you get diarrhea. You have eliminated some of the beneficial microorganisms;that live in your intestine. The best way to get them back is to eat a;probiotic food like yogurt with live cultures.;Consider the different pathogens that cause diseases. As a public health;professional, which disease are you most concerned about?Post by Day 4 a response to the following;?;?;Choose;a specific type of microbe that causes a particular human disease and explain;how it causes this disease in humans.You may not choose influenza or the same;microbe you discussed in the week on immunology.;?;?;Discuss;at least one example of recent, published research that has been done to;understand this organism and its mechanism of action, and explain how the;findings can be applied in public health.;Support;your discussion by citing at least one primary research article.;Bottom of Form;Week 7;Influenza;Pandemic;Do;you know why individuals have to get a flu shot to be protected from seasonal;influenza every year? It is because of genetic drift. The influenza virus has;an inherently unstable RNA genome, which makes it easy for it to mutate just;enough every year so that our immune systems no longer recognize the virus.;Every year, researchers work at a frantic pace to determine which strains will;be prevalent in the coming year, and then create the vaccine to combat it.;Usually, they get it right, but this is why in some years, the flu shot does;not work very well. In the early part of flu season, samples are quickly;analyzed to determine whether the strain is a good match for the vaccine.;To prepare for this week's Discussion, reflect on the readings for this week.Post by Day 4 a response to the following;?;?;Provide;a concise description of the mechanism of action of influenza viruses, using;molecular and biological terminology as appropriate. Include in your discussion;an explanation of the ability of the influenza virus to cause a pandemic.;Support your discussion with at least one primary research article.;?;?;Discuss;at least one example of recent, published research that is being done to;understand an influenza virus that infects humans or that could potentially;infect humans, and explain how the findings can be applied in public;health.This could include a seasonal, zoonotic (eg. avian or canine), or known;pandemic influenza strain. Be sure to cite the research study you discuss;which may not be the same source used for the bullet point above.;Support your discussion by;citing at least two primary research articles.;Week8;Toxicity;of Alcohol;Post by Day 4 a response to the following;?;?;Provide a concise description of what;is known about the mechanism of action and toxicity of alcohol using molecular;and biological terminology as appropriate.;?;?;Discuss;at least one example of recent, published research that is being done to;understand the mechanism and toxicity, and explain how the findings can be;applied in public health.;Support your discussion by citing at least one primary research article.Read your colleagues' postings from another thread.Respond by Day 6 to at least one of your colleagues' postings in;a different topic in one or more of the following ways;?;?;Ask;a probing question;?;?;Expand;on the colleague?s posting with additional insight and resources;?;?;Offer;polite disagreement or critique, supported with evidence;In addition to, but not in place of the above, you may;?;?;Offer;and support an opinion;?;?;Validate;an idea with your own experience;?;?;Make;a suggestion or comment which guides or facilitates the discussion;Review and reflect on your colleagues? postings to your initial posting. Note what;you have learned and/or any insights you have gained as a result of the;comments made by your colleagues. (No posting is required for this reflection.) NOTE: Remember;return to this initial postingtopic to respond to questions and peer feedback.;Week 9;Biological;Basis of Cancer;Prior;to writing your Discussion response this week, choose a particular angle of;carcinogenesis to focus on, such as chemical-induced mutagenesis, genes;signaling pathways, etc. Consider the implications and application to public;health.Post by Day 4 a response to the following;?;?;Choose;a type of cancer and provide a concise description of what is known about how;this carcinogenesis occurs, using molecular and biological terminology as;appropriate. Include the role of genes and environment in your discussion as;they relate to the type of cancer you chose.;?;?;Discuss;at least one example of recent, published research that is being done to;understand this carcinogenesis, and explain how the findings can be applied in;public health.;Support your discussion by citing at least one primary research article.Read your colleagues' postings.Respond by Day 6 to at least one of your colleagues' postings in;one or more of the following ways;?;?;Ask;a probing question;?;?;Expand;on the colleague?s posting with additional insight and resources;?;?;Offer;polite disagreement or critique, supported with evidence;In addition to, but not in place of the above, you may;?;?;Offer;and support an opinion;?;?;Validate;an idea with your own experience;?;?;Make;a suggestion or comment which guides or facilitates the discussion;Review and reflect on your colleagues? postings to your initial posting. Note what;you have learned and/or any insights you have gained as a result of the;comments made by your colleagues. (No posting is required for this reflection.);Week 10;Atherosclerosis;Most;individuals associate atherosclerosis with the coronary arteries. However, any;artery in the body can become diseased with plaque. Arteries leading to the;brain, arms, pelvis, and legs can also become clogged with atherosclerotic;plaque.;In preparation for this Discussion, consider the risk factors associated with;atherosclerosis.Post;by Day 4 a;response to the following;?;?;Provide;a concise description of atherosclerosis, including what is known about how it;occurs and the role of risk factors such as diet. Utilize molecular and;biological terminology as appropriate.;?;?;Discuss;at least one example of recent, published literature that is being done to;understand how atherosclerosis occurs, and explain how the findings can be;applied in public health.;Support your discussion by;citing at least one primary research article.Read your colleagues' postings.;Week 11;Alzheimer's;Disease;Alzheimer?s;disease, a neurological disease, is a very costly public health problem. As the;population ages, the incidence of Alzheimer?s will increase. According to one;research study by Brookmeyer, Gray, and Kawas (1998) the incidence of;Alzheimer?s will nearly quadruple in the next 40 years. Finding a way to delay;the onset of this disease could have a major impact on public health.Post by Day 4 a response to the following;?;?;Provide;a concise description of what is known about how Alzheimer?s disease occurs;including risk factors such as genes and environment. Utilize molecular and;biological terminology as appropriate.;?;?;Discuss;at least one example of recent, published literature that is being done to;understand how Alzheimer?s disease occurs, and explain how the findings can be;applied in public health.;Support your discussion by;citing at least one primary research article.Read your colleagues' postings in the Addiction topic.;Week12;Discussion - Week 12;COLLAPSE;Top of Form;The;Big Picture: Course Concepts;Consider;the different concepts presented throughout this course: cellular and molecular;biology, human genetics, immunology, biological basis of influenza, toxicology;cancer, cardiovascular disease, and more. Reflect on how your understanding of;these concepts has grown over the past 11 weeks.Post by Day 4 a response to the following;?;?;Post;a discussion of the concepts presented throughout this course that you found;most useful personally or professionally. Be sure that this initial post is;250?350 words in length.;Bottom of Form

 

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