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HCA 507 Organizational Behavior in Health Care Unit 1-4 MCQs

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Question;First Edition, 2009 ISBN-13: 9780763742850, ISBN-l 0: 0763742856 HCA 507 -Organizational Behavior in Health Care Text: Organizational Behavior, Theory, and Design in Health Care Author(s): Nancy Borkowski Publisher: Jones & Bartlett;HCA 507 Organizational Behavior in Health Care;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that emerged from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science and _ Mathematics Physical Science Economics Biology None of the above In the healthcare industry, OB has become less important because we work with _ populations. technological heterogenous homogeneous singular None ofthe above With a greater understanding of OB, managers are better able to and, thus, _____ the behavior of employees to achieve organizational goals. Understand, Control Predict, Influence Predict, Control Understand, Influence None of the above 4. Why was the Hawthorne Effect significant to the develoopment of OB? they demonstrated the important influence of human factors on worker productivity. it is a cogent articulation of the basic assumption of OB explains how companies are organized clarifies the importance of management None of the above.;5. Theory X states that employees are: productive and safe creative and competent contributive and participatory unintelligent and lazy None of the above Why did McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y have a significant impact in the development of organizational behavior? It emphasized the little effect a manager's assumptions are Manager's need to allow employee's to express themselves Employee's lack motivation A manager's assumptions cause employee's behavior None of the above According to the US Census Bureau, by mid-century the white, non-Hispanic po,ulation will comprise less than. 25 30 50 72 91 8. The Office of Minority Health defines cultural competence as: patterns of human behavior recruitment and retaining of adequate cultural practices a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together a differentiation of policies, behaviors and attitudes None ofthe above 9. Of the following, which is NOT a key recommendation to safegard against ageist bias: Increase training and education of healthcare providers and research into aging Demonstrate patience. Include older patients in clinical trials. Utilize appropriate screening and treatment methods. Empower and educate older Americans.;1 O. is a strategically driven process whose emphasis is on building skills and creating policies that will address the changing demographics of the workforce patient population. Healthcare Management Diverisity Management Primary Management National Management None of the above. t t. Which group will be the fastest-growing segment of the workforce? Generation-X Women Minorities Generation-Y None of the above The three areas that are key organization-specific factors for shaping career outcomes for women and racially/ethnically diverse individuals are: Higher salaries, time, and leadership Leadership, culture, and human resources practices Leadership, higher salaries and better job descriptions Culture, human resources, practices, and time Culture, higher salaries, and leadership This theory predicts that employees pursue a balance between their investments in and the rewards gained from their work. Cognitive dissonance Attributive Cognitive Perceptve Equity 14. Perception process follows four stages: stimulation, registration, organization and: acceptance information interpretation conception None ofthe above;Managers make attributions about employees based on "consistency" and "distinctiveness" as well as which is "the extent to which an employee's performance is the same or different from other employees:;a. attribute b. stereotype c. habit d. differentiation e. consensus A hospital is well known for Cardiac surgery, but is therefore also perceived to be a good hospital for Gastric surgeries as well. This generalized carryover based on just one characteristic is known as _ a stereotype the halo effect the horn effect the placebo effect angel syndrome From reading about the "contrast effect" in person perception, we know that if compared to a highly attractive person, a target person will be judged as than s/he would have been if rated on his or her own. more attractive less attractive if female, more attractive if male neutral - contrasts have no effects on judgment of attractiveness less attractive less attractive if male, more attractive if female What is another name for the "self fulfilling prophesy" where individuals tend to live up to other's stated expectations about us? Pygmalion Effect Projection Halo Effect Stereotype Sublimation;19. Keyton (2002) describes various forms of feedback. Which one is an example of a form of feedback? Prospective Feedback Descriptive Feedback Evaluative Feedback band c All of the above 20. All BUT which is an area that comprises the Johari Window?;a. Hidden Area b. Closed Area c. Unknown Area d. Open Area e. Blind Area Porter (1985) provides guidelines for achieving effective linkages among business units. Which one is a linkage discussed? Diagonal communication that flow through task forces or committees Use cross-organizational management processes Use human resources policies and procedures All of the above None of the above Which is NOT one of the key elements to effective communication for physicians and hospital administrators? Must have a desire to communicate Must have an understanding of how others learn Must be able to write clearly The receiver of the message should be cued to the purpose of the message None ofthe above 23. is an intentional process of presenting ideas in a clear, concise and persuasive way. Communication effectiveness Strategic communication Effective communication Intraorganizational communication None of the above;Sperry and Whiteman identify five components of a strategic communication plan. Which of the following is NOT one of them? Context Messages Tactical Reinforcement Feedback Purpose The sharing of information among peers at similar levels to keep organizational staff informed of all current practices, policies and procedures is an example of;a. upward flow b. downward flow c. horizontal flow d. diagonal flow e. None of the above;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1. The most effective style of leadership is one which leaders _ sets direction and influences others to accomplish a task. show that they are in charge and make decisions accordingly allow important decisions to be made by managers follow the advice of the experts allow others to make the decisions 2. In McClelland's 3-Needs theory, socialized power need is associated with effecive leaders who: dominate over the members direct their power in ways that benefit others and the organization follow what the members want allow decisions to be made by experts all of the above 3. All of the followinq are five bases or surces of power identified by French and Raven EXCEPT: reward power individual power coercive power;e. referent power The manager exercises minimal effort on getting the task accomplished, doing only that amount of work that is required to sustain his or per position within the organization. Impoverished Ideal Middle-of-the-Road Country club Task The manager balances the concern for task and the concern for people in an effort to boost morale and satisfaction. impoverished ideal middle-of-the-road country club task 6. The three components of the process of motivation are, goals, incentives, and behavior behavior, wants, and direction incentives, behavior and goals unsatisfied need, drive, and satisfied need incentive, behavior, drive 7. The levels in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs are _ growth, relatedness, and existence satisfiers, physiological, relatedness, self-esteem, and safety physiological, affiliation, safety, self-actualization, and self-esteem hygiene, affiliation, safety, satisfiers, and self-actualization self-actualization, self-esteem, affiliation, safety, and physiological 8. The three categories of Alderfer's ERG Theory are _ existence, relatedness, and gain existence, relatedness, and growth extrinsic, recognition, and growth environment, recognition, and gain gain, improvement, interelatedness 9. According to Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory, motivators do NOT include;a. salary b. recognition c. responsibility d. work itself e. advancement Which of the following is NOT one of the five core motivational job characteristics identified by Hackman and Oldham? Skill variety Task significance Autonomy Feedback Advancement;11. Managers are dependent on others because of division of labor and _ division of power division of growth division of advancement limited resources lack of su pport 12. Which of the following is a method of inequity resolution? Altering inputs or outputs Changing the other comparison Cognitively distorting inputs or outputs Resign from the organization All of the above Managers must ensure that employees have adequate resources to reach their goals. Which of the following is NOT a support element? Company policies Training Action Plan Feedback None of the above 14. suggests that an employee's behavior will be repeated if it is associated with positive rewards. ExpectancyTheory Equity Theory Reinforcement Theory VIE theory Punishment Theory 15. What type of reinforcement occurs when an unpleasant effect is eliminated or avoided?;a. Positive b. Negative c. Punishment d. Extinction e. Equity;16. is defined as the removal of an established reinforcement that was previously used to reinforce an employee's behavior. Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction Variable 17. A schedule allows reinforcements to be administered at irregular intervals.;a. continuous b. variable-interval c. variable-ratio d. fixed-interval e. fixed-ratio Which motivational state tends to favor internal and stable attributions for successes and external and unstable attributions for failures? Learned helplessness Resilience Aggression Empowerment Reflective Which motivational state tends to favor internal and stable attributions for failures and external attributions for successes? Learned helplessness Resilience Aggression Empowerment Strength Which motivational state tends to favor accurate attributions, not biased toward overly internal or external attributions for successes or failures? Learned helplessness Resilience Aggression Empowerment Strength;21. An individual with a(n) attribution style frequently attributes undesirable events to internal and frequently stable factors such as lack of intelligence, while attributing desirable outcomes to external and frequently unstable factors, such as bad luck. optimistic pessimistic hostile negative positive An individual with a(n) attribution style has a tendency to attribute negative outcomes to external factors coupled with a tendency to attribute positive outcomes to internal factors. optimistic pessimistic hostile negative positive 23. is a process through which an individual attempts to intentionally influence human systems in order to accomplish a goal. Leadership Management 1'1::1 SUd~IUII Empowerment None ofthe above In this type of behavior, leadership behavior is goal and task centered but seeks a high degree of follower involvement. High production and high people orientation High production and low people orientation Low production and low people orientation Low production and high people orientation All ofthe above;25. According to Lewin's behavioral research, which type of leadership style is demonstrated when the leader offers guidance and encourages participation to group members?;a. Authoritarian b. Democratic c. Laissez-faire d. Diplomatic e. Fair;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) Situational favorableness is based upon three contingency dimensions that were related to leadership effectiveness. Which of following contingency dimensions is not identified as part of Fiedler's theory? Leader-member relations Task structure Administrative interdependence Leader position power All of the above;2. ____ is the degree of certainty, trust, and deference between the subordinate and the leader. Leader-member relations Position of power Task structure Subordinate relations All of the above;3. is the extent to which job assignments are clear through the implementation of formalization and policy. Leader-member relations Position of power Task structure Subordinate relations All of the above 4. is the degree of control and influence the leader legitimately possesses in dealing with organizational activities, highly dependent upon the support the leader receives from senior management. Task structure Leadership skills Leader-member relations Dependency Leader Position Power 5. The Ieadership style can increase employee motivation. directive supportive participative achievement-oriented plaintive 6. Hershey and Blanchard suggests leaders should adapt their leadership style based on: use of authority by the manager and area of freedom of subordinates task behavior, relationship behavior and the level of maturity of the subordinate task behavior, subordinate beharior and maturity level all of the above none of the above 7. leaders incorporates emotion, values, and vision to motivate individuals and seeks to change the status quo. Symbolic Transactional Transformational Integrated None of the above 8. Characteristics of transactional leadership include all the following, except _ contingent reward management by exception (active) laissez-faire inspirational management by exception (passive) 9. Characteristics of transformational leadership include all but: charisma inspiration teamwork individualized consideration intellectual;10. All of the following are part of the Big Five Personality Factors EXCEPT: Introversion Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability 11. Why does Goleman believe that EI is more important than IQ? EI is easily measured. IQ does not provide statistical data EI is a better predictor of success in both personal and professional endeavors. EI is the "end all" in determinig leadership characteristics At the group level elements of EI can be identified, assessed and upgraded. 12. Translating competency into success requires both motivation and ' opportunity competency individual characteristics leadership professionalism 13. is designed to enhance an employee's health and performance at work by eliminating the stressors that lead to distress. Organizational prevention Tertiary prevention Preventive coping Secondary prevention Primary Prevention 14. Healthcare occupations feel stress in the worksetting due to all EXCEPT: risk of infection lack of sleep long hours irregular shifts fear of accident;15. What does Friedman suggest for individual coping strategies for healthcare workers? work on predicting what might happen control the situation so one is not in a stressful situation training employees to cope with stressful situations explain they may be reprimanded if they are not able to handle stress Taking a vacation 16. In the Hardiness Training concept, commitment refers to: one's beleif that if he or she tries, he or she can postiviely influence mucho of what happens in his or her life. an individual's attitute that everything that happens to him or her is opportunity improve. an individual's belief that involving oneself in changes is the way to deepen meaning. an individual's belief that being optimistic changes how a situation will turn out e. all ofthe above 17. Aniticipatory Coping is prevention. tertiary primary secondary proactive skills 18. is a phenomenon in which people experience failure at a task and determine that the task cannot be accomplished and therefore, stop trying. Learned helplessness Agoraphobia Schizophrenia Empowerment Skill assessment 19. decision-making involves using one's professional judgment based on past experiences rather than sequential logic or explicit reasoning Bounded rationality Intuition Heuristics Biases All of the above Of the five conflict-handling modes described byTomas and Kilmann, which one reflects a win-win approach to conflict?;a. Avoidance b. Accommodation c. Competition d. Compromise e. Colla boration \21. bias is an intuitive technique where the perceived probability of an event is influenced by the ease of recollection. Adjustment Anchoring Representativeness Availability All of the above 22. Of the four categories of intergroup conflict, which one relates authority relationships? Vertical conflict Horizontal conflict Line-staff conflict Diversity-based conflict None of the above 23. What type of intergroup conflict may occur when supervisors attempt to control subordinates? Adjustment conflict Horizontal conflict Line-staff conflict Diversity-based conflict Vertical conflict;Of the five conflict-handling modes, which one reflects a win-lose approach to conflict? Avoidance Accommodation Collaboration d. Compromise e. Competition 25. are guidelines or "rules of thumb" that help make our world manageable by simplifying complex tasks. Bounded rationalities Intuitions Rational Heuristics Decision-making;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) l, Based on research, what is the optimum size for developing group cohesiveness?;a. Three members b. Five members c. Seven members d. Nine members e., a or more members;2.;refers to the decreased effort of individual members in a group when the size of the group increases. Conformity pressures In-group status Out-group status Non-comformity pressures Social loafing;3. is the term used to describe when we conform to what we believe to be the norms of the group in order to be accepted by its members. Group control Conformity c. Normative social influence Non-conformity Cohesiveness The following is a symptom of: Direct pressure on any member who expresses strong arguments against any of the group's stereotypes, illusions or commitments, making clear that this type of dissent is contrary to what is expected of all loyal members. conformity groupthink social loafing cohesiveness group interaction 5. All are forms of groupthink EXCEPT: Overestimation of the group Closed-mindedness Open-mindedness Pressures toward uniformity All ofthe above 6. Cohesiveness of a group will increase _ if the group has experienced prior successes when admission into the group is more difficult to obtain due to various barriers or high criteria if members perceive that an external force may prohibit the group from obtaining its goals all of the above none ofthe above 7. groups are those that we compare ourselves to for developing our personal behavior and social attitudes. Reference Secondary Primary Formal Informal 8. groups are organized based on members' common interests or goals.;a. Primary b. Secondary c. Informal d. Formal e. Reference 9. Managers need to be aware that groups can be a powerful force within their organization.;a. primary b. secondary c. informal d. formal e. reference 10. groups are created by the organization, therefore, they are part of the organization's formal structure.;a. Primary b. Formal c. Reference d. Secondary e. Informal Groups go through sequential stages of development. The following is as example of what development stage: In this stage the rules for behavior are explicitly and implicitly defined. There is a greater degree of order and a strong sense of group membership.;a. Forming b. Storming c. Performing d. Norming e. Adjourning 12. Which of the following is NOT an approach for building team performance? Establish urgency and direction Challenge the group regularly with new information Set clear rules of behavior Select members based on personality, not skills Use positive feedback, recognition and rewards 13 Which of the following is NOT a barrier to effective teamwork? lack of friendship lack of management support lack of resources lack of leadership lack of training 14. Which of the following is NOT a characteristics of successful teams? Clear goals Autocratic leadership Valued diversity Cooperative relationships Open communication;15. Which data collection method might enable the practitioner to learn more about communication patterns, leadership issues or ineffective conflict resolution strategies in the team? Questionnaires Interviews Observation Unobtrusive methods Primary 16. Changing from a functional to a matrix structure is an example of which type of intervention? Strategic Organic Human process Human resource management Technostructural Which of the following interventions deal primarily with issues between people in an organization? Strategic Technostructural Artistic Human resource management Human process 18. A career planning system is an example of which type of intervention? Strategic Technostructural Human process Human resource management Innovative 19. A diversification in products is an example of which type of intervention? Technostructural Strategic Human process Human resource management Interpretive;20. This intervention is designed to enable groups of people to work together on a single problem and through a regimented process utilizing specific problem solving tools. Team building Process improvement Total quality management Work design Task related Which of the following interventions is often mistakenly seen as the only intervention needed but the goal of this intervention should be to build or improve a skill base? Training Process improvement Team building Work design Task related The design and implementation of planned change has three basic requirements. Which of the following is NOT one ofthe basic requirements? A new mission statement must be approved by the Board of Directors before change can be initiated. Sufficient time exists for planning and implementing change Adequate resources are available Employees involved have the necessary skills and knowledge to design and implement the changes e. All of the above An important strength at this approach lies in the fact that management has been involved in all exploration activities: Examine Existing Conditions Define Need for Change Conduct a management audit analysis Defining current organizational objectives Document an overview action plan 24. Revising organizational structures require addressing all BUT which issue: Has the organization become more rigid? Has the fluidity of work processes been improved? Have communication demands been reduced? Has the use of new technology been successfully implemented? Have working condiions improved for employees?;25. According to Kotter, managers need to follow eight steps for successful organiza?tional change. Which one of the following is one of the eight steps? a. Establish a sense of urgency b. Comunicate the vision c. Empower others d. All of the above e. None of the above

 

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