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Question;1.;In Widom?s research on the relationship;between early child abuse and later delinquency or adult criminal behavior;which of the following were considered to be either validity or reliability;problems?;a.;using public school records and birth;records from local hospitals to select the sample;b.;by using law enforcement data to assess;delinquent and criminal behavior, Windom only identified those who were caught;for their behavior not those who were criminally active but were not caught;c.;by using court data to identify those;for the sample who were abused, Windom only knew about those cases where abuse;came to the attention of the public officials, not all the cases that go;unreported;d.;all of the above;\;2.;In Sherman;and colleagues? research dealing with crime hot spots they chose to use ?calls;for service? to local law enforcement as a means of measuring where different;types of crimes happened with greatest frequency. They noted some problems with the use of;calls for service. Which of the;following represents those problems?;a.;there is a potential for duplicate calls;to local law enforcement for any one event;b.;there may be false reports, in other;words no crime happened;c.;there can be misleading findings such as;parking lots or hospitals may appear to be hot spots when in fact they are not;d.;all of the above;\;3.;Which of the following is not a concern about;the use of agency records?;a.;since most agencies are computerized;there is little cause to be concerned about the quality of the data;b.;expect the expected, it is the;unexpected findings that are worrisome;c.;changes in record-keeping practices can;affect the measurement;d.;data will be accurate because agency;data has to be;\;4.;In the text, an example was given concerning;the difficulty in trying to measure how much crime happened to victims who were;not residents of South Florida. Since police;only routinely kept records on where victims stayed locally (such as hotel;addresses) researchers could have an additional question added to the incident;recording form asking for the victim?s permanent address. All of the following;would be benefits of that except;a.;it is much cheaper to add a question to;a form than collecting the data oneself;b.;it is much more expensive to add a;question to a form because it requires all the forms to be reprinted;c.;it allows for more control over the;measurement process;d.;it enhances the reliability of data;collection;\;5.;Which of the following is accurate concerning;having agencies collect original research data?;a.;cooperation to add research questions is;not as likely to be successful if you are asking for a major additional effort;on the part of the agency staff;b.;the cooperation of the staff and their;organizations are directly proportional to the intrusiveness of the data;collection;c.;if the research project is likely to;save the agency money or improve staff performance the chances of enlisting;assistance is greater;d.;all of the above are accurate;\;6.;Which of the following statements is most;accurate?;a.;once units of analysis are defined;sampling agency records is relatively simple;b.;once units of analysis are defined;sampling agency records is quite complicated;c.;there is no relationship between the;units of analysis used in agency records and the sampling techniques used;d.;you must use all agency records and;cannot select a subset since that will lead to incomplete conclusions;\;7.;Which of the following represent reliability;or validity concerns when a researcher uses agency records?;a.;the number of general clerical staff;since too few is not good;b.;changes in the operational definitions;the agencies use to specify key terms;c.;maintaining consistent procedures the;agency uses to collect the data over time;d.;agency records are generalizable to;similar agencies;Which of the following is not accurate;concerning validity and reliability of agency records?;a.;the shorter the time intervals under;study the greater the concern about procedure changes;b.;longitudinal researchers must be;concerned about changes in operational definitions over time;c.;longitudinal researchers must be;concerned about changes in procedures over time;d.;the longer the time interval under study;the greater the concern about procedure changes;\;8.;Which of the following would not impact the;validity and reliability of a study using agency records?;a.;discretion of prosecutors in who to;charge and what counts to add;b.;decisions that are made by police;officers to arrest verses give a warning;c.;recognition on the part of the;researcher that criminal justice data is a composite of criminal behavior;ability to detect that behavior and decisions about system response to that;behavior;d.;decisions made by probation officers to;revoke on new crimes and not technical violations;\;9.;It is often said that agency data are not;designed for research purposes. Which of;the following support that statement?;a.;some criminal justice agencies collect;data because they are legally required to do so;b.;often the data collected by criminal;justice agencies is not covered under privacy regulations;c.;because variable definitions are;consistent from agency to agency;d.;all of the above;\;10.;Which of the following situations would not;have an impact upon error in agency records?;a.;computers have the capacity to magnify;clerical error;b.;a single crime could be recorded by two;agencies, thus making that event over-represented;c.;having very little data to input;d.;even rare events can be recorded;improperly;\;11.;Which of the following is an example of;content analysis in criminal justice research?;a.;counting the number of stories devoted;to the coverage of crime in your local newspaper;b.;counting the number of robberies that;happen in your city;c.;measuring the average length of time from;arrest to disposition in your city;d.;determining the average number of;inmates housed in your city?s jail on a daily basis;\;12.;Which of the following is an accurate;statement concerning the use of content analysis?;a.;content analysis involves a statistical;study of messages;b.;content analysis involves a systematic;study of messages and the meaning that those messages convey;c.;content analysis involves only the;analysis of speeches given concerning criminal justice issues;d.;content analysis methods can only be;used with agency reports to determine their applicability;\;13.;Which of the following would not be an;appropriate target of content analysis?;a.;speeches;b.;newscasts;c.;constitutions;d.;number of domestic violence arrests;\;14.;They underlying meaning of a communication is;it?s;a.;latent content;b.;manifest content;c.;coding content;d.;coding scheme;\;15.;A;researcher is interested in using content analysis to determine how the United;States Supreme Court has changed its interpretation of the 4th;Amendment?s ?unreasonable? search and seizure prohibition over time. Which of the following are the units of;analysis?;a.;individual justices;b.;court decisions in 4th Amendment;cases;c.;the dissenting opinions;d.;the concurring opinions;\;16.;Coding in content analysis involves the;logic of conceptualization and;a.;application;b.;operationalization;c.;validity;d.;generalization;\;17.;Secondary analysis encompasses which of the;following sources of criminal justice data?;a.;content analysis of agency records;b.;UCR;c. self-reports;d. NCVS;\;18.;Which of the following is not an advantage of;using secondary data?;a.;reduction in validity threats;b.;it is cheaper than collecting original;data;c.;it is faster than collecting original;data;d.;the researcher may;benefit from the work of others established in their fields;\;19.;If you wanted to measure the number of date;and acquaintance rapes that happen in this country and use UCR data as your;source, what is likely to be your most significant problem?;a.;generalizability;b.;validity;c.;reliability;d.;applicability;\;20.;The use of secondary analysis of data has;become very popular because;a.;it is cheaper but never as good as;collecting your own data;b.;it is faster because the data is readily;available;c.;scholarly journals are now publishing;primarily data gathered from secondary analysis;d. because it is always considered valid;\

 

Paper#59335 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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