Question;TRUE/FALSE;Criminal Justice and human behavior can be studied scientifically.2. The ?Chicago School?;founded by Burgess and Park was influential in our understanding of why;children failed in schools.;3. In deductive reasoning, one starts from a;general law and applies that law to a particular instance.;4. In using scientific inquiry, in deduction we;reason towardobservations, in;induction we reason from;observations.;5. If a number of social scientists agree that a;phenomenon exists, they are using intersubjective agreement for objectivity.;6. Grounded theory is used to describe the;deductive method of theory construction.;7. A hypothesis is a specified expectation about;an empirical reality derived from axioms.;8. A paradigm and a theory refer to two;different things. The paradigm is a;fundamental model or scheme that organizes our view of something.;9. Research on criminal justice policy is an;example of applied research.;10. The ecological approach;to understanding crime suggests that human behavior is partially the result of;the physical and social environment where the behavior takes place.;MULTIPLE CHOICE;1.;Much of the current social science;research has moved from description to;a.;exploration;b.;explanation;c.;understanding;d.;theory;2. Much of the current research in criminal justice and;criminology focuses upon which of the following?;a.;basic building;block of a concept;b.;concept?s;theoretical counterpart;c.;systematic;explanation for the observed facts and laws that relate to a particular aspect;of life;d.;principle or law;3. Which of the following is not an example of a;concept?;a. delinquency;b. peer group;c. indoor temperature;d. social disorganization;4. Which of the;following constitute facts related to variables?;a.;the empirical counterpart to a;concept;b. variables;can only be one value;c. more;broad than concepts;d. cannot;be observed;2;5. In the concentric zone theory of the ?Chicago School? the zone of transition is;characterized by;a.;the citizens that;formed the core of morality for the city;b.;the wealthiest;citizens of Chicago;c.;low-income immigrants;from Europe initially;d.;people who;relocated from the suburbs;6. Observation involves all of the following;except;a.;conducting;experiments;b.;interviewing;people;c.;watching people;and detailing what you see;d.;statistical;manipulation;7. Which of the following is not an example of a;type of statement?;a. laws;b. propositions;c. axioms;d. objectives;8. Socrates is mortal and observing a number of;other people. All the observed people are mortals.;All people are mortal. This is an example of what type of logic?;a.;deductive;b.;observation;c.;inductive;d.;hypothesis;9. Which of the following is an example of;subjectivity?;a. which rap singer do you like the best;b. what was your score on your first research;methods exam;c. did Judge Wilson have more mistrials than;Judge Hughey;d. how much tuition does your university charge;for full time students;10. Which type of research frequently involves;the inductive method?;a.;field research;b.;experiments;c.;surveys;d.;use of existing;data such as the Uniform Crime Reports;11. Which of the following is another word for;objectivity?;a. subjectivity;b. intersubjective agreement;c. attitudes;d. religiosity;12. Which of the following is an example of a;concept?;a.;height;b.;peer group;c.;weight;d.;age;13. Which of the following is an example of a;variable?;a.;social;disorganization;b.;crime;c.;social class;d.;annual family;income;14. An axiom is a type of;a.;theory;b.;variable;c.;statement;d.;concept;15. Which of the following is not an example of a;hypothesis?;a. males score;higher in math than females.;b. poor;children have higher delinquency rates than do middle-class children.;c. why is the;sky dark at night?;d. those who;study daily will have the highest grades;16. Which of the following illustrates;situational crime prevention?;a.;use of;management, design, or the manipulation of the environment to reduce crime;b.;using prison to;reduce crime by keeping offenders away from the public;c.;increasing police;presence in high crime areas;d.;offender home;checks;17. Which of the following are not efforts that;you can employ as situational crime prevention techniques?;a.;keeping your car;doors locked when you park;b.;using a steering;wheel lock every time you exit your car;c.;call the police;immediately after you realize that your car has been vandalized;d.;use removable;stereo systems;18. Which of the following is accurate with;respect to paradigms?;a. paradigms;consist of groups of hypotheses;b. paradigms;are ways of organizing our views;c. paradigms;are hypotheses linked in a logical framework;d. all;statements are accurate;19. Research on a criminal justice related policy;is an example of;a.;explanatory;research;b.;descriptive;research;c.;applied research;d.;exploratory;research;20. In an inductive approach to policy;development, the final step is;a.;monitoring;results;b.;collecting data;c.;analysis of;situation;d.;systematic study;21. All people are mortal, therefore Socrates is;mortal is an example of which type of logic?;a.;deductive;b.;observation;c.;inductive;d.;hypothesis;22. Dr. Quinn is interested in who is least;likely to show up for their trial, those who bond out of jail with the help of;a bondsman or those placed in a court sponsored pre-trial release program. The;results of the study indicate that those inmates released using a bail bondsmen;had a lower failure to appear at trial rate than those using court sponsored;pre-trial release. The findings of the study are used to close the expensive;court run pre-trial release program. This study is an example of what type of;research?;a.;theory building;b.;applied research;c.;basic or pure;research;d.;a paradigm shift;23. Which of the following is not an example of a;hypothesis?;a. there are too many inmates in America?s prisons and jails;b. a person charged with a crime is more likely to be;found guilty using a court appointed attorney than a privately retained one;c. there is a relationship between being acquitted at;trial and one?s perceived physical attractiveness;d. the rise in the number of minorities going to prison is;the result of American?s war on drugs;24. Independent of opinion is a definition of;a. an analysis;b. subjectivity;c. objectivity;d. a hypothesis;25. This term represents a set of concepts and;the proposed relationships among these, a structure that is intended to;represent or model something about the world.;a.;a paradigm;b.;a law;c.;a theory;d.;a fact;26. Which of the following best applies to the;statement that science is always objective?;a. this only happens in the study of economics;b. objectivity is a matter of intersubjective agreement;c. objectivity can never happen when engaged in;scientific research;d. objectivity is always present when a researcher knows;all of the variables impacting their study;27. You count the number of students registered;for your research methods class. This is;an example of;a.;objectivity;b.;subjectivity;c.;intersubjectivity;d.;theory;28. When the relationship between two variables;is drawn from a theory, it is said to be;a.;a fact;b.;a hypothesis;c.;a mini theory;d.;a paradigm;29. Dr. Smith is doing an observational study in;a local jail and discovers that inmates who are respectful to the correctional;officers get more telephone calls than inmates who are disrespectful. What technique has been employed in the study?;a.;evaluation;research;b.;inductive logic;c.;deductive logic;d.;theory;construction;30. The more a person drinks and drives the more;likely they are to be pulled over for DUI. This is an example of;a.;a theory;b.;a law;c.;a hypothesis that;results in a negative relationship;d.;a hypothesis that;results in a positive relationship;31. Conclusions drawn about the relationships;among concepts, based on the logical interrelationship among the axioms is;a.;a law;b.;a proposition;c.;an axiom;d.;a statement;32. Which of the following cannot be studied;scientifically in the field of criminal justice?;a.;the relationship;between the number of police officers on the street and the crime rate;b.;the relationship;between the number of police officers on the street and citizen satisfaction;c.;the role that an;act of a deity plays on being arrested for a criminal offense;d.;the role that age;plays in slowing one?s criminal activities;33. The ?Chicago;School? was noted for the study of;crime in various sections of the city of Chicago. Which of the following was used to study;where crime happened?;a.;concentric zones;b.;ask people why;they left Chicago;for other northern cities;c.;interviews with;police officers;d.;content analysis;of newspapers;34. Which of the following cannot be studied;scientifically?;a.;physical;attributes of humans;b.;the purpose of;life;c.;changes in the;number of elephants in the wild;d.;astronomy;35. Operationalization means;a.;the part of a;theory that tells us how variables are related;b.;the procedures we;go through to identify and measure variables;c.;the procedures we;go through before we can develop a hypothesis;d.;the part of a;theory that tells us what statistics we can use;36. Which of the following is most accurate?;a.;theory must;always come before observation;b.;observation must;always come before theory;c.;theory may;precede observation, just as observation may precede theory;d.;theory and;observation are not related;37. The primary distinction between a paradigm;and theory is based on;a. intersubjective agreement;b. a hypothesis;c. organization and structure;d. operationalization;38. Which of the following is not true concerning;theory, research and policy relationships?;a.;theory structures;research;b.;policies can be;examined to determine if they accomplish their goals;c.;theory should;never be used to develop public policy;d.;research is;consulted to develop public policy;39. Which of the following characterizes the;statement: ?criminal justice and human behavior often can be studied;scientifically??;a.;the statement is;wishful thinking;b.;the statement is;correct;c.;the statement is;inaccurate;d.;the statement;fails to address problems in studying human behavior;40. The three main elements in the traditional;model of science include theory, operationalization, and;a.;statistics;b.;hypotheses;c.;observation;d.;conclusions;41. What is the final step in the traditional;model of science?;a.;operationalization;b.;theory;development;c.;data collection;d.;observation;42. The results of Burgess and Park?s study using;the concentric circles in the city of Chicago;resulted in;a.;the finding that;where ever the poorest people live will be the least amount of crime;b.;the finding that;where the most wealthy people live will be the highest rates of property crime;c.;the finding that;the crime rate will be the highest in the area characterized by transition;d.;the finding that;when people move from one zone to another, they take their criminal tendencies;with them;43. The concept of ?observation? in the language;of science means;a.;looking at the;world and making value judgments;b.;looking at the;world and making measurements of what is seen;c.;looking at the;world and making changes in what is seen;d.;looking at the;world through rose colored glasses;44. Grounded theory is used to;a.;measure how much;common sense went into a specific theory;b.;describe the;inductive method of theory construction;c.;describe the;deductive method of theory construction;d.;assess the;elements that make up dirt;45. Which of the following is not a concept?;a.;juvenile;delinquency;b.;peer group;c.;grade in research;methods;d.;religiosity;46. Which of the following is an axiom?;a.;working class;youths have higher delinquency rates than upper class youths;b.;working class;youths would be more likely to break the law to gain material goods than upper;class youths;c.;everyone desires;material comforts;d.;social class has;no bearing on the tendency to break the law;47. Which of the following is the most accurate?;a.;?just as clothing;goes in and out of fashion, paradigms that influence criminal justice come and;go?;b.;?just as there;are solid rules of physics, paradigms represent solid ideas about the;relationship between variables?;c.;?just as clothing;goes in and out of fashion, axioms come and go as well?;d.;?just as clothing;goes in and out of fashion, variables come and go as well?;48. Paradigm shifts are;a.;shifted to;resemble concepts;b.;concepts shifted;to paradigms;c.;previously agreed;on paradigms that are discarded in favor of new ones;d.;previously agreed;upon paradigms that are changed over to a hypothesis;49. Defensible Space is;a.;the current U.S. policy;for protecting Americans;b.;an attempt to;understand the link between urban design and crime;c.;a movie that;demonstrates how to protect yourself;d.;U.S. missile defense system;50. Operationalization involves which of the;following?;a. testing;hypotheses;b. testing;theories;c. identifying;how you will measure a variable;d. developing;a theory;51. The idea of defensible space can be traced to;the work of;a.;Shaw and McKay;b.;Newman;c.;David Takeuchi;d.;Maxfield and;Babbie;52. The second step in the traditional model of;science is which of the following?;a. concepts;b. observation;c. operationalization;d. methodology;53. Which of the following is accurate with;respect to induction?;a. induction;begins with a theory;b. induction;starts with observed data;c. induction;ends with relationships;d. induction;begins with generalizations;54. Townsley and associates proposed that just as;disease spreads, crime spreads, they referred to this as;a. disorganization;b. contagion;c. hot;spots;d. repeat;victimization;55. Grounded theories refer to which of the;following?;a. testing a;theory to see if the data fits;b. theories;that have been constructed by faculty just beginning their careers;c. describes;the inductive method of theory construction;d. describes the;deductive method of theory construction;56. Researchers developed the contagion theory of;burglary by all of the following except?;a. they;examined patterns across various neighborhoods;b. they were;able to compare the spread of crime with the spread of disease;c. they linked;their findings to existing theories of environmental criminology;d. they took a;sociological theory and called it a contagion theory;57. If grades go up as the number of study hours;go up, this is called what type of relationship?;a. negative;b. positive;c. inverse;d. a;fluke;58. Scientific inquiry in practice typically;involves a relationship between;a. theory and;policy;b. concepts and;paradigms;c. hypothesis;and hypotheses;d. deduction;and induction;59. According to ecological theory, which of the;following is not a fundamental principle?;a. crime is;more common in urban transition zones;b. crime is;more common is suburban transition zones;c. crime is;more common where there is a great deal of crowding;d. crime is;more common where there is much poverty;60. Which of the following illustrates the;relationship between a theory and a paradigm?;a. theories are;collections of hypotheses while a paradigm uses just one hypothesis;b. a paradigm;is more specific than a theory;c. a theory is;more specific than a paradigm;d. a theory is;a paradigm;COMPLETION;1.;Research in criminology has moved from;descriptive studies to those that place a greater emphasis on systematic.;2. The logic of social scientific inquiry is based in the;use of _________ to guide the inquiry.;3. The zone of transition in Chicago characterized by weak families;social institutions and substandard housing produced a phenomenon called;disorganization.;4. When one moves from particular instances to general;principles ? from facts to theories, one is using _____________ reasoning.;5. An axiom is an assumption about reality, while a;proposition expresses relationships among ________________.;6. A(n) ___________ is a fundamental model or scheme that;organizes our view of something.;7. Another word for intersubjective agreement is.;8. The process of specifying steps, procedures, or;operations for actually identifying and measuring variables to be observed is.;9. When crime prevention policies try to reduce the;opportunities for crime to occur, _______________ crime prevention is being;employed.;10. When a researcher monitors and evaluates results of a;program to determine if it is achieving its goals, this step is similar to;testing in basic research.;ANS: hypothesis;11. Using the deductive model, research is used to test;12. Using the inductive model, _______________ are;developed from the analysis of research data.;13. The two pillars of science are observation and __________________.;14. __________ logic moves from the general to the;specific.;15. ______________ logic moves from specific data to;general assumptions.;ESSAY QUESTIONS;1. Identify a theory that is based upon deductive;reasoning and one that is based upon inductive reasoning. Explain why each;falls into the category that you suggest.;2.;The three main;elements in the traditional model of science are theory, operationalization;and observation. Identify a piece of research discussed in class and identify;each of the elements listed above for that research.;3.;The text details;the work of the ?Chicago;School? and the impact;that perspective had on the field of criminology. What aspects of the;ecological approach could be applicable today and why?;4.;Your authors;present terms that are used in theory construction. Some of those terms are;concepts, variables, statements and hypotheses. Explain how those words are;related to one another. Use a specific theory to illustrate the relationship.;In other words, identify a theory, from that theory identify a concept and;variables. From those variables develop;a statement and a hypothesis.;5.;Paradigms were;discussed in your text in part in terms of Thomas Kuhn?s paradigm shifts. What;does this mean and give an example of a paradigm shift in the field of;criminology or criminal justice.
Paper#59357 | Written in 18-Jul-2015Price : $22