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PSY110 ch 5 petest

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Question;1);Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She's;older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an;example of;stimulus substitution.;biological preparedness.;conditioned emotional response.;vicarious conditioning.;2);A teacher has decided to give ?caught being good? tickets to;her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also;rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This;teacher is using;observational learning.;punishment and classical conditioning.;operant conditioning.;classical conditioning.;3);In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment;the children who had seena model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed;aggression toward the doll. Another group had seen the model get punished;rather than rewarded. Which of the following statements is true about these;other children?;They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to;demonstrate what the model had done.;They refused to beat up the doll under any circumstances.;They beat up the doll but denied doing so when asked about;it.;Half of them beat up the doll and half did not.;4);Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his;parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon's parents are using;what technique to modify his behavior?;punishment by removal;secondary reinforcement;negative reinforcement;punishment by application;5);After having many cavities fixed as a child, Kyle now has an;active dislike of the dentist's drill. His tendency to become anxious when;hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed;a reinforcer.;stimulus generalization.;higher-order conditioning.;spontaneous recovery.;6);The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning;involves;the mental activity of analyzing another's behavior and;making a choice to copy that behavior.;the ability of animals to learn new information.;the mental activity of consciously expecting something else;to occur.;biological preparedness.;7);Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object;or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result;of;reflex.;maturation.;operant conditioning.;biological preparedness.;8);Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs? ___________.;circulatory systems;digestive systems;brain activity;social behavior;9);In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov's dogs were;conditioned to salivate when they;saw their trainers.;smelled their food.;saw their food bowl.;heard the sound of the metronome.;10);A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary;(reflex) response is a/an;unconditioned response.;neutral stimulus.;unconditioned stimulus.;conditioned stimulus.;11);is the disappearance or weakening of a learned;response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in;classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant;conditioning).;Stimulus generalization;Extinction;Spontaneous recovery;Stimulus discrimination;12);Which psychologist is best known for working with children;and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching;others be aggressive?;Edward Tolman;Martin Seligman;Albert Bandura;B. F. Skinner;13);Which of the following is one of Bandura?s elements of;observational learning?;perception;flattery;memory;mastery;14);is learning new behavior by watching a model perform;that behavior.;Observational learning;Partial reinforcement effect;Learning/performance distinction;Vicarious conditioning;15);It is believed that animals revert eventually to instinctual;behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with;extinct behaviors.;obtaining food.;caring for their young.;other animals.;16);In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more;predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to;adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.;ratio schedule;fixed interval schedule of reinforcement;interval schedule;variable interval schedule of reinforcement;17);What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are;capable of?;reckless and controlled;pleasant and unpleasant;involuntary and voluntary;actions and basic survival instincts;18);The law of effect states if an action is followed by a;pleasurable consequence, the action is likely to;reduce pain.;be repeated.;become a cognitive expectation.;be remembered.;19);Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the;other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as;successive approximations.;successive reinforcers.;secondary reinforcers.;discriminative stimuli.;20);Further studies that followed K?hler?s work with;chimpanzees;have found no support for the concept of animal insight.;have shown definitively that animals have insight.;have shown that chimpanzees are the only animals that have;insight.;have found support for the concept of animal insight.;21);In Seligman's study on dogs, the dogs that were not;conditioned to fear the tone;jumped over the fence when the tone sounded.;jumped over the fence when the shock started.;refused to move even after the shock started.;showed distress when the tone sounded.;22);In K?hler's experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one;stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then he;learned to fit two sticks together to reach a banana placed farther away. This;was an example of;latent learning.;classical conditioning.;insight.;trial-and-error learning.;23);In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the;rats in the group that did not receive reinforcement for solving the maze had;learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a;cognitive map.;learned to expect reinforcement every tenth day.;more interest in the reinforcement than did the other;groups.;been more motivated by the variable interval schedule of;reinforcement.;24);Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes;useful is called;a learning curve.;latent learning.;conditioned learning.;insight learning.;25);Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the;brain are called;unconditioned response.;reflex.;classical conditioning.;maturation.

 

Paper#59493 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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