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PSY 505 Multiple Choice Questions 2014

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Question;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)Emil Kraepelin is best known for his contributions to the study of schizophrenia. He introduced two new diagnostic categories of disordered behavior, dementia praecox and manic-depressiveinsanity, based on symptom differentiation,, and _etiology, prognosisetiology, physiologyprognosis, symptomologyprognosis, physiology2.0bject relations theory proposes that people have a basic drive fordominating others.satisfying sexual instincts.engaging in social interactions. d, spiritual development.3. The social learning model of behavioral acquisition proposes thatonly behaviors in a social context are reinforced.punishment is only effective in producing learning in humans.a person does not actually have to do the behavior to learn it.humans are motivated more by primary reinforcers than secondary reinforcers.4. Gender roles directly affect the of abnormal behaviors.expressioncauseseveritychron icity5. Which of the following statements is TRUE?Modern psychologists believe that psychopathology is physiologically based.Abnormal behavior may be best understood using a single theoretical framework.Understanding abnormal behaviors requires an integration of models.Sociocultural factors are the best explanation for disordered behavior.6, The biopsychosocial perspective, compared with the perspectives of Freud, Jung, and Rogers,a, focuses on early developments as the diathesis.adequately explains all disorders.assumes the nature of man to be good.is broader than the other models.7. Mario has just returned from his third deployment to Iraq. For several months after returning, he is unable to sleep and has difficulty dealing with flashbacks of mortar fire over the compound in which he worked. Using a biopsychosocial model, we might explain his problems as deriving fromthe stress of deployment alone.a diathesis and the stress of deployment.a lack of social support.a failure in coping alone.8. A researcher is interested in studying the effect of orange juice on test performance. She will evaluate the test performance of students who drink the juice a half-hour before the test against the performance of students who receive nothing to drink before the test. The groups are equivalent in terms of demographics, intelligence, and prior college classes. In thisexample, the orange juice would be the _experimental controlcontrol variableindependent variableexperimental variable9. One way to overcome a limitation of the case study method is tostandardize the types of treatment methods used.vary the number of sessions used.generate conclusions as to the cause of a disorder in a case report.vary the levels of the independent variable.10. Select the following characteristic that IS NOT typical of a single-case research design.A baseline assessment of behavior occurs as a first step in the research design.A treatment is applied during the experimental phase and then withdrawn in the next phase.Several behaviors are changed during the experimental phases.Decreases in behavior during treatment demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.411. Which of the following IS NOT a feature of randomized controlled designs that can affect a study's outcome?internal validityparticipant selection proceduresassessment strategiesmoderator variables12.Whereas efficacy research focuses on., effectiveness research targetscausal relationships, success rates.cost-benefit ratio, causal relationshipscausal relationships, cost-benefit ratiossuccess rates, causal relationships13. One major limitation of group-based research In earlier clinical research in abnormal psychology is theover reliance on self-report measures.overuse of white college students as participants.failure to use blind conditions.Inappropriate use of statistical procedures.14. The epidemiological approach to the study of abnormal behavior is one thatgrew out of a need to evaluate cisorders within older cohorts.focuses on behavioral aberrations at the subgroup level.focuses on behavioral aberrations at the popu lation level.primarily focuses on the causes of behavioral disorders.15. Dr. A and Dr. B are studying the effects of war on posttraumatic stress disorder. They both administer the same interview to the same soldiers returning from war. Which of the following psychometric test properties is being addressed in this example?Test-retest reliabilityI nter-rater agreementReferent reliabilityNormative agreement516. Selecting the best set of instruments to address the clinician's questions depends on the goals of assessment, the properties of the I nstruments, and thereferral source's theoretical orientation.persons available to provide additional information through interviews.amount of time available for the assessment.nature of the patient's difficulties.17. While a major benefit of the unstructured interview lies in its flexibility, a major drawback exists in theamount of time required to complete it.potential unreliability of conclusions drawn from it.resistance of the patient to answer all questions contained in it.inability of the client to articulate symptoms.18. Mr. Smith is a 67-year-old insurance salesman who is being admitted to an inpatient facility for substance abuse treatment. Using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, the clinician evaluates Mr. Smith to be functioning at a level of 45. What is the clinician communicating in assigning this score?Mr. Smith's symptoms are transient and expectable reactions to a psychosocial stressor.Mr. Smith's functioning is good in all areas, especially given his current condition.Mr. Smith may have serious symptoms or serious impairment in areas of overall fu nction i ng.Mr. Smith's case does not provide enough information to evaluate his general level of functioning.19. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) assesses intelligence in which of the following age ranges?a. 7-16 years b.2 112-7 years7-12 years7-14 years20.ln the technique known as behavioral observation, the first step ischoosing an observer who can work without bias.defining the behavior so that it can be closely observed and reliably monitored.determining whether the patient can keep reliable records of his or her own behavior.testing possible observers to see if they can be sufficiently attentive in a natural environment.6A patient comes to a clinician with complaints of depression and anxiety. If applying the DSM-III rule of no symptom appearing In more than one category, what would likely be the diagnostic result?The rule would not affect the diagnosis.No diagnosis would be entered given the contradictory information.Comorbid diagnoses would be recorded.The International Classification of Diseases-IO would be used.Experiencing vivid and frightening images of monsters while in a state of sleep paralysis is anexample of the concept of _a hypnagogic stategeneralized anxiety disordera panic attacka hypsonomic stateResearch indicates that the generalized subtype of social phobia is associated with a childhood history ofpanic attacks.shyness.neglect.abuse.24. One feature of obsessions that creates anxiety for an individual is theirextreme specificity.intrusive nature.startle value.rapid onset.2S. AII of the following EXCEPT are symptoms of PTSD.numbingan overactive sympathetic nervous systeman exaggerated startle responsecompulsions7Family and genetic studies tell us that compared with relatives of people without an anxiety disorder, relatives of someone diagnosed with an anxiety disorder aremore likely to also have the disorder.less likely to have the disorder.not at higher risk for the disorder.less susceptible to have the disorder.27. Biofeedback training often combines monitoring of physiological responses within vivo exposure.medication.self-reports of anxiety levels.relaxation training.28. Across all anxiety disorders, improvement rates for cognitive-behavioral therapy average abouta.53. b.70. c.98. d.20.29. Which of the following IS NOT true of people with somatoform disorders?They have a major impact on our medical systems.Sometimes, several different physicians evaluate the same patient complaint.They often "doctor-shop."They are usually relieved to learn their psychological diagnosis.30. At this time, the etiology of somatoform disorders is poorly understood and must be approached from a perspective.physiologicalpsychologicalmedicalinterpersonalThe notion that sufferers of somatoform disorders may experience bodi Iy sensations as intense, noxious, and disturbing is known asSomatic Over-sensitivitySomatic AmplificationSomatic DesensitizationSomatic Delusions844. The use of laxatives in bulimia nervosa may lead to edema, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, andchronic fluid retention.severe intermittent bouts of gastritis.irreversible bowel dysfunction.permanent i rregu lar heartbeats.Yolanda has been diagnosed as having an eating disorder involving "chewing and spitting."Given this information, what is the most likely formal diagnosis for her?Anorexia NervosaBulimia NervosaEating Disorder Not Otherwise SpecifiedRestrictive Eating Disorder46. Epidemiologic data on eating disorderssuggest that eating disorders are more prevalent among black women than white women in the U.S.do not provide us with a clear picture of the racial and ethnic distribution of the disorders.indicate that American Indian females have a disproportionately high rate of eating disorders compared to Hispanic females.suggest that anorexia nervosa among black women is underreported.Jenna is a young adolescent and has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Most likely, her recovery and treatment wil] address issues related to independence, trust, andseparation anxiety.emotional freedom.establishing romantic relationships.assertiveness.Salvador Minuchin, who investigated patterns of family dysfunction among patients with eating disorders, identified "enmeshment" asa family's willingness to maintain the sick status of the affected member.familial attempts to cover up the family member's illness. C. the overidentification of family rrembers with the therapist.d. Over involvement of all family members In the affairs of one member.49. The only FDA-approved drug for an eating disorder is fluoxetine, and it is prescribed forbulimia nervosa.anorexia nervosa.eating disorder not otherwise specified.bingeing.11Female sexual arousal disorder is characterized Oy ~::v'~ s.er.t inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response until the complet.cn 07 sexual activity. According to your text, why is this disorder controversial?It may not exist independently of disorders of sexual desire or orgasmic disorder.There is very limited empirical support for it.It always accompanies cases of decreased sexual desire.It is considered to be another example of labeling normal sexual behavior as dysfunctional.5l. Which of the following sexual dysfunctions is most common among men?Premature EjaculationHypoactive Sexual Desire DisorderSexual Aversion DisorderMale Erectile Disorder52. The sexual dysfunction most often responsive to pharmacologic treatment ishormonal insufficiency.erectile dysfunction.female sexual arousal disorder.vaginismus.Mark is a college student who engages in a secret behavior. During university football games, rubbing his body against that of an unsuspecting female sexually arouses him. This contact causes him to become sexually aroused but he typically ends the incident by saying, "excuse me." What behavior is Mark most likely to be engaging in?ExhibitionismPedophiliaVoyeurismFrotteurism54.Antiandrogen medications are used to treat some forms of paraphilia. They work bylowering the recidivism rate through selective sedation.decreasing the sexual drive by reducing testosterone levels.eliminating recidivism through chemical castration.increasing normal heterosexual behaviors by decreasing leuprolide actate.1255. Treatments for paraphilias that eliminate or decrease Inappropriate sexual arousal includesocial skills training and sex education.rational emotive and cognitive-behavioral therapy.satiation, covert sensitization, and olfactory aversion.couples therapy and sensate focus.56. The position that child abusers were abused as children themselvesis strongly supported by numerous epidemiological studies of sex offenders.fails to consider that the vast majority of abused children do not become child abusers.does not take into account the changing societal and cultural definitions of child abuse.does not explain why child abuse is a self-perpetuating cyclical problem.57. The most commonly used illicit drug in the U.S. isamphetamine.heroin.marijuana.cocaine.58. When injected, benzedrine, dexedrine, and methamphetamine increase the release ofserotonin, norepinephrine, and in the brain.gamma aminobutyric acidacetylcholinedopamineepinephrine59.Select the statement that is FALSE about cocaine.It inhibits the reabsorption of dopamine by the nerve cells.Large doses are associated with anesthetic and convulsant effects.Deaths have been reported after relatively low doses of the drug.Cocaine, although powerful in effect, is not highly addictive.Barbiturates pose a death risk because of rapid tolerance and risk of overdose. This is the result ofacceleration of the heart rate.depression of the brain's respiratory center.increase in blood pressure.damage to the nerve cells of the brain stem.136l. Endorphins and enkephalins have the same physiologice. 2:",:'C: on rhe body as opioids in that they producea. heightened arousal and pain relief. b, disorientation and sedation.pain relief and sedation.euphoria and heightened arousal.62.Which of the following inhalant substances is NOT one of the drugs most commonly used by teens?Rubbing AlcoholCleaning FluidGluePaintBehavioral/psychological factors may be influential in the initiation and continued use of drugs. Many theorists propose thatall drug behavior is a function of classical conditioning.negative reinforcement or punishment are not Involved in the phenomenon.substance use may be due to operant conditioning.all substance use is learned and maintained through modeling.Of the following schizophrenia subtypes, which IS characterized by only negative symptoms or previous positive symptoms that have lessened in severity or frequency?UndifferentiatedCatatonicDisorganizedResidualPatients with schizophrenia are at high risk for victimization because they frequently live in unsafe conditions andare required to commute longer distances to work.cognitive impairments make them easy targets.speech abnormalities make it difficult to report their crimes.suffer from medical conditions that make them dependent on caretakers.14Researchers from a Danish study discussed In your text videotaped children ages 11 to 13 while they were eating lunch at school. The children's behavior was rated in several categories, including sociability, involuntary movement, and general neuromotor signs. When compared with people who were diagnosed with a different psychiatric disorder, researchers found that adults who developed schizophreniahad more subtle general neuromotor abnormalities as children.frequently displayed disruptive outbursts during childhood.exhibited the same degree of sociability in childhood as the other children in the study.experienced psychotic symptoms in childhood.In the movie Bug, Agnes becomes involved with a drifter named Peter. Agnes soon learns that Peter believes he has been infected with bugs as part of a secret government experiment. As the movie progresses, the couple becomes increasingly isolated and Agnes becomes convinced that Peter has infected her as well. The couple's behavior quickly spirals out of control and their mental states deteriorate. Assuming there was no government experiment and no such bugs, given this information, Agnes would most likely be diagnosed withschizoaffective disorder.schizophreniform disorder.delusional disorder.shared psychotic disorder.Genetically speaking, if one parent is diagnosed With schizophrenia, there is a _chance of their child also developing the disorder.01550100Medications widely available before the 1990s that are effective in reducing only the_____ symptoms of schizophrenia are called _negative, typical antipsychoticsnegative, atypical anti psychoticspositive, typical anti psychoticspositive, atypical anti psychotics15Research studies of specific personality disorders have mainly focused on or_____ personality disorders.narcissistic, avoidantobsessive-compulsive, schizoiddependent, paranoidborderline, antisocialIn addition to traditional talk therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, and inpatient stays, step- down programs have been effective in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Step-down programs are defined asshort-term hospital stays followed by long-term outpatient and community treatment.long-term hospital stays followed by short-term outpatient and community treatment.initially intense psychotherapy that gradually tapers off to occasional maintenance sessions.initially intense psychotherapy followed by a transition to community-based self-help treatment programs.78. The text states that a reading disorder most likely results fromdifficulties with vision and visual perception.an inability to accurately store vocabulary and grammar in memory.a diminished attention span wr ich leads to mental fatigue.diminished ability to recognize and produce sounds that when put together form words.79. Treatment for learning disorders generally occursat home.in afterschool programs.in educational settings.at community-based outreach programs.80. The onset of autistic disorder is always before the age of123 d.4U nti I the 1970s, autistic disorder was thought to be caused by, or parents whowere emotionally unresponsive to their infants.frigid parentsrefrigerator mothersemotionally repressed parentsschizophrenogenic mothers1782. Wh ich category is NOT an attention-deficit/hyperactrvuv ~.~c:2,' subtype?InattentiveHyperactivityHypersensitiveCombined83. is a childhood disorder that is characterized by a continuous and repeatedpattern of violati ng the basic rights of others or breaki ng societal ru les.Attention-deficit/hyperactivity aisorderOppositional defiant disorderDisruptive behavior disorderConduct disorderIn 2003, the Pediatric Research Equity Act gave the FDA the authority to mandate pharmaceutical research on children. This addressed what problem?Few chi Idren were receiving the benefits of drug treatments.Drug companies were inapprooriately testing drugs on children.Empirical data on the safety and efficacy of drugs given to children were lacking.Medication use among children was in decline because of fears about its safety.Although not necessarily the recommended first line medication for this problem, the class of drugs most frequently prescribed to treat anxiety in older adults isantidepressants.benzodiazepines.beta blockers.buspirone.86. Treatment for risky/problematic drinking in older adults is aimed atprevention and early intervention.detoxification and relapse prevention.social skills training and daily living activrties.withdrawal safety and early intervention.87. Very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis develops after the age of 65 andis caused primarily by genetic abnormalities.is characterized by more negative symptoms.symptoms appear after a person has a stroke, tumor, or other neurodegenerative change.there is evidence that as chi Idren patients experienced greater rates of maladjustment.18Etiological factors for late-onset schizophrenia (not general psychosis) include all of the following EXCEPThormonal changes in women.deficits in hearing and vision.neurological damage (e.g. stroke or brain tumor).genetic factors.89. is an alteration in consciousness that typically occurs In the context of amedical illness or after ingesting a substance.DementiaDeliriumDissociationDelirium tremens90. Brain abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease includeexcessive amounts of neurofibrillary tangles and plaques.smaller cerebral ventricles than can be accounted for by normal aging.blocked blood vessels, which may result In tissue death.damage that is confined primarily to the Inner layers of brain tissue.9l. The interdisciplinary field that studies the relation between behavioral and biomedical science is known asneuroscience.medical psychology.behavioral medicine.holistic medicine.The coping strategy that acts to directly change the stressful situation IS called _coping.response~ocusedemotion-focusedsolution-focusedproblem-focusedA shared limitation of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, the Hassles Scale, and the Uplifts Scale ispoor "real-life" generalization.that they rely on memory/recall of events.not factoring in individual differences.an inability to differentiate between the Impact of positive and negative life events.1994. Artificial immunities are acquired throughbreast milk.food.vacci nations.prior disease exposure.95. The group that currently accounts for one-fourth of newly diagnosed H IV/AI DS cases ismen.women.Whites.Hispanics.96. Outpatient commitment appears to be most successful when itincludes the use of psychoactive drugs.requires periodic rehospitalization for evaluation.is provided by a team of mental health specialists.is a sustained and intensive intervention.97. Unlike privacy, which is the right of an individual to give away, confidentialityexists only in legal circles.is an ethical ideal and often impractical.is held between two parties.is never broken by a therapist.98. The Tarasoff case of 1969 established the ethical mandate of duty toinform.predict danger.mai ntai n confidential ity.warn.99. The practice of psychology is bound by state laws and regulations as well as byclient demands.an ethical code of behavior.medical regulations.research and clinical trials.100. Dr. Peigro is a noted neuropsychologist who nas _ s J}I'lg Alzheimer's disease in men forover 20 years. At a recent speaking engagement, he cha::.,.S,3J:,18 prcfession for notfocusing more research on women who have Alzheimer's and called for increased efforts inthis area. He even mentioned that the requires it.Belmont ReportDeclaration of HelsinkiNuremberg CodeInstitutional Review Board

 

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