Question;Abnormal Psychology Multiple choice Questions1) Abnormality as defined by ?being different?A) is always negative in connotation.B) may be positive or negative in connotation.C) is neither positive or negative in connotation.D) is always universal in connotation.2) The term ?deviance? impliesA) looking different.B) behaving differently.C) having a mental illness.D) engaging in criminal wrongdoing.3) Gerry is a night watchman who has worked at the same company for 25 years. He is described as very shy and withdrawn around others. While this behavior is not problematic at work, his relatives find him ?weird? and tend to shun him at family gatherings. Despite encouragement by his immediate family to mingle, Gerry hardly speaks to others at these events. According to the ?goodness-of-fit? concept, Gerry?s behavior wouldA) not be viewed as a problem at family gatheringsB) not be viewed as a problem at work but would be viewed as a problem at family gatherings.C) not be viewed as a problem at all.D) only be viewed as a problem if it caused difficulty for his immediate family.4) The context of culture in abnormal psychologyA) should not be a consideration in defining deviance.B) is important in understanding the behavior of children but not of adults.C) is not important when applying the ?goodness-of-fit? concept.D) is fundamental to the determination of ?abnormality.?5) Which statement below is TRUE of a culture-bound illness?A) It is never seen in more than one culture.B) The behavior may appear as abnormal outside a specific culture.C) It is usually found only in children.D) The behavior usually requires hospitalization in the home culture.6) The case of Ted Kaczynski (the Unabomber) described in your text highlights theA) shift from eccentricity to behaving dangerously.B) stereotyping of a person with mental illness.C) importance of early intervention in culture-bound illnesses,D) influence of the media on defining abnormal behavior.8) According to your text, abnormal behavior is defined as behavior that is inconsistent with the individual?s developmental, cultural, and societal norms, creates emotional distress, orA) is seen by others as deviant.B) interferes with daily functioning.C) is ?culturally bound.?D) is aligned with the ?goodness-of-fit? model.9) The etiology of a disorder refers toA) the developmental stage in which a disorder appears.B) the cultural context of a disorder.C) how a disorder begins.D) how a culture impacts a disorder.10) Approximately what total percentage of adults in the U.S. have suffered from a psychological disorder at some time in their lives?A) 10%B) 25%C) 38%D) 48%11) Of all disorders reported in the U.S., the most common are alcohol dependence andA) anxiety disorders.B) major depression.C) schizophrenic disorders. - GivenD) personality disorder.12) When using the DSM model to determine abnormality of a behavior, which of the following statements is TRUE?A) The person?s behavior is assessed both categorically and dimensionally.B) The person either falls into a category or doesn?t fall into a category.C) The person?s level of dysfunction is not considered.D) The behavior is not considered within a cultural context.13) Men are more likely than women to suffer fromA) alcohol and drug abuse.B) mood disorders and anxiety disorders.C) alcohol abuse and mood disorders.D) depression and anxiety disorders.14) Except for drug and alcohol abuse, the highest rates of psychological disorders are found among persons with the lowest incomes andA) least amount of education.B) highest number of siblings.C) female gender.D) suburban places of residence.15) William is a well-educated 40-year-old man who suffers from schizophrenic disorder. Originally, he was employed as a computer programmer, but he was fired two months ago because of chronic absenteeism. For the last several weeks he has been homeless. He sleeps at night in a cardboard box behind a Dunkin Donut after closing time. Which of the following theories might describe William?s current plight?A) Downward shiftB) Downward driftC) Downward SESD) Downward trajectory16) A study in your text addressing the relationship between SES and the likelihood of developing a psychological disorder among children found thatA) children from different SES groups develop psychological disorders at different rates.B) children at particular ages develop psychological disorders at different rates.C) children from all SES groups develop psychological disorders at the same rates.D) children of middle-income parents have the lowest rates of illness.17) The concept of ?developmental trajectory? expresses the notion thatA) symptoms of a disorder are always most severe in childhood.B) symptoms of a disorder may vary depending on a person?s age.C) age determines the presence of a disorder but not symptom expression.D) a person?s developmental stage has little bearing on a given diagnosis.18) Which of the following statements about differences found in the rates of psychological disorders in boys and girls at different ages is TRUE?A) Both boys and girls peak at approximately the same age.B) Boys peak at age 13 but girls peak much earlier.C) Boys peak at approximately age 9 or 10 but girls peak in their early 20?s.D) Boys peak around age 10 but girls reach their peak around age 16.19) Trephination as practiced by ancient cultures was a process wherebyA) the two halves of the brain were severed.B) a small opening was made in the eye socket.C) the inner ear was punctured with a sharp object.D) certain portions of the skull were cut away.20) The ancient Greek physician Asclepius foreshadowed modern treatment for psychological disorders in that heA) founded the first pharmacy that prescribed psychoactive medication for patients.B) based his practice on the idea that trephination, as an early medical intervention, was successful for most disorders.C) invented the practice of placing patients in cool baths to relieve stress.D) founded the first sanctuary for mental disorders offering a variety of treatments.21) Hippocrates identified symptoms of abnormal behavior still recognized today by psychologists. These symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, andA) avoidance.B) mania.C) tremors.D) psychosis.22) Felicia believes that her cell phone is beginning to control her thoughts. She noticed this after she switched phone plans and thinks the problem began with the new service. This belief would typically be known as aA) delusion.B) hallucination.C) hysterical episode.D) melancholic thought.23) In ancient Greece, hysteria was believed to be caused byA) wandering humors.B) a wandering brain.C) a wandering uterus.D) wandering bile.24) Hippocrates believed that maladaptive behaviors were caused by an imbalance in bodily humors from physical factors or fromA) demonic possession.B) the wrath of the gods.C) a shifting of lunar tides.D) a change in the seasons.25) In medieval Europe, mental illness was thought to be caused byA) retribution from the gods.B) evil or demonic spirits.C) a wandering uterus.D) a dysfunctional family.27) Emotional contagion is the automatic mimicry and synchronization of expression, vocalizations, postures, andA) values of another.B) fantasies of another.C) word patterns of another.D) movements of another.28) Our modern use of the word ?bedlam,? denoting a chaotic situation, is historically rooted in which of the following practices?A) Allowing hysterics to act out their beliefs.B) Warehousing of mentally ill persons.C) Allowing witch hunters to convict and hang witches.D) Warehousing entire families believed to be mentally ill.29) The first physician to adopt a form of occupational therapy for patients wasA) Pinel.B) Paracelsus.C) Dix.D) Hippocrates.30) William Tuke, a contemporary of Philippe Pinel, proposed that patients live, work, and relax in a compassionate and religious environment. This philosophy was the foundation forA) community treatment.B) moral treatment.C) voluntary commitment.D) individual treatment.31) Although Anton Mesmer was criticized for his animal magnetism approach to treatment, he managed to demonstrate the importance ofA) a physician?s training.B) energy flow.C) humane treatment.D) the placebo effect.32) Darien is 3 years old. He slips off a step, falls, and bruises his knee. Upon picking the crying toddler up, Darien?s mother kisses his knee and gives him an M&M. Magically, Darien?s pain disappears. This phenomenon would be known as the _____________ in psychology.A) Mesmer effectB) talking cureC) placebo effectD) classical conditioning effect33) Emil Kraepelin is best known for his contributions to the study of schizophrenia. He introduced two new diagnostic categories of disordered behavior, dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity, based on symptom differentiation, _________________, and ________________.A) etiology, prognosisB) etiology, physiologyC) prognosis, symptomologyD) prognosis, physiology34) Which of the following statements about Josef Breuer?s approach to the case of Anna O. is TRUE?A) He recognized that Anna?s difficulty moving her legs was due to general paresis, so he treated her with medication.B) Breuer believed that only psychoanalysis would help cure the hysteria manifested by Anna.C) He believed that the animal magnetism concept could be effective if the patient had faith in the placebo effect.D) Breuer believed that hypnosis could have a beneficial effect by allowing Anna to recall and discuss information that was relevant to the disorder.35) Jeffrey?s therapist is conducting an initial interview with him. The therapist spends a lot of time asking questions about Jeffrey?s parents and his early life experiences. Since he seems to view Jeffrey?s parents as the ?root cause? of his problems, this therapist is most likely oriented toward ____________.A) psychoanalysisB) humanismC) behaviorismD) behavioral genetics36) According to Freud, which of the following was critical to overcoming psychological difficulties?A) EmpathyB) HypnosisC) InsightD) Regression37) In the classical conditioning paradigm demonstrated by Pavlov through his study of the physiology of dog digestion, what was the UCS?A) BellB) Food PowderC) PavlovD) Salivating38) In Pavlov?s experiment with dogs, classical conditioning was demonstrated whenA) the UCS elicited the CRB) the UCS elicited the UCRC) the CS elicited the CRD) the CS was paired with the UCS39) John B. Watson, the founder of behaviorism, maintained thatA) fear was an instinctive and unlearned response in children.B) all behaviors were learned through exposure to the environment.C) inner thoughts were acceptable behaviors for scientific study.D) behavior was conditioned through operant reinforcement.40) If a psychologist defines herself as a ?scientist-practitioner,? what do we automatically know about her through this label?A) She is focused on pure research and practices sound methodological principles.B) She relies on the latest research findings in providing quality care and treatment to patients.C) She takes a behavioral approach, only trying to change dysfunctional behaviors that are observable.D) She is not focused on the etiology of a disorder but on a research-based treatment approach.41) Neurons release neurotransmitters into synapses. These neurotransmittersA) land on the receptor site of the next neuron, causing it to fire.B) block further messages from being sent to the next neuron.C) land on an axon, causing it to fire and send an electrical impulse.D) establish a permanent link between one nerve cell and the next.42) Biological scarring, as seen in some disorders such as PTSD, demonstrates thatA) the brain is capable of healing itself after a trauma.B) the brain may change as a result of the disorder.C) genetics plays a vital role in vulnerability to a disorder.D) brain plasticity is not possible after trauma.43) Which of the following statements about the viral infection theory as it relates to the development of psychological disorders is TRUE?A) Viral infections do not cause changes in the brain that lead to later behavioral disturbances.B) There is no relationship between viral infection and psychological disturbances.C) Viral infections do not lead to psychological disturbances through immune system suppression.D) Viral infections, if confirmed to be related, may take several pathways in producing the disordered behavior.44) According to Freud?s theory, the id isA) the source of basic drives and of psychic energy.B) capable of delaying gratification through its conscience.C) controlled by the superego but not by the ego.D) located at the conscious level of awareness.45) Raul is a college freshman who looks forward to weekend parties at college. He especially likes to play ?beer pong? and is known on campus as a champion player. After a recent party, Raul received a DUI citation. Raul?s parents have urged him to seek treatment for his ?alcohol problem,? but Raul refuses. He does not believe he has a drinking problem. In Freud?s theory, which of the following defense mechanisms is Raul likely using?A) IntellectualizationB) RationalizationC) DenialD) Repression46) During which of the following psychosexual stages does a child experience fantasies about the opposite-sex parent?A) Genital StageB) Anal StageC) Oral StageD) Phallic Stage47) All of the following are techniques Freud used for treatment EXCEPTA) free association.B) dream analysis.C) interpretation.D) sublimation.48) Freud and his successor, Carl Jung, had fundamental disagreements about the motivation for behavior. While Freud thought that past events and sexual impulses were important, Jung believed thatA) future goals and spiritual motivators were causal elements.B) past events and sexual and spiritual motivators were important.C) present events and spiritual motivators cause behavior.D) birth order was the most important determinant.49) Object relations theory proposes that people have a basic drive for?A) dominating others.B) satisfying sexual instincts.C) engaging in social interactions. - GivenD) spiritual development.50) Dr. Barstow is treating a young man who is afraid of dogs. One method he uses is progressive muscle relation using vivid imagery. Once the patient is relaxed, Dr. Barstow introduces the patient to a picture of a dog with instructions to ?breathe deeply and remain calm and relaxed.? Which learning principle established by Wolpe is being employed in this example?A) MindfulnessB) Negative ReinforcementC) Backward ChainingD) Reciprocal Inhibition51) In operant conditioning, a reinforcer serves to _______ a behavior it follows.A) extinguishB) weakenC) strengthenD) diminish52) Every time little Jeffrey goes shopping with his mom, there is an incident at the checkout line when he spots candy. Typically, Jeffrey?s mom initially refuses his request for a candy bar. When the child throws himself to the floor kicking and screaming, Jeffrey?s mom gives in and hands him the candy bar to end the embarrassing scene. In operant conditioning terms, what is maintaining the child?s ?checkout tantrums??A) Negative ReinforcementB) Non-Contingent ReinforcementC) Positive ReinforcementD) Vicarious Reinforcement53) Which of the following statements about reinforcement is TRUE?A) Reinforcement may increase or decrease a behavior it follows, as it depends on the targeted behavior of the organism.B) Reinforcement must be primary to have an impact.C) Reinforcement must be delivered every time a behavior is emitted to strengthen a behavior.D) Reinforcement for one person may be punishment for another.54) Which of the following reinforcers meets the criterion for being ?primary??A) MoneyB) AttentionC) GradesD) Power55) Derek has a fear of elevators. He will always take the stairs rather than experience the anxiety of being in a closed space and the risk of plunging to his death if the elevator malfunctions. What is maintaining Derek?s avoidance of elevators?A) Negative ReinforcementB) Positive ReinforcementC) PunishmentD) Extinction56) The social learning model of behavioral acquisition proposes thatA) only behaviors in a social context are reinforced.B) punishment is only effective in producing learning in humans.C) a person does not actually have to do the behavior to learn it.D) humans are motivated more by primary reinforcers than secondary reinforcers.57) Which of the following forms of learning explains why television has a profound effect on children?s learning?A) Operant ConditioningB) Vicarious ConditioningC) Classical ConditioningD) Shaping Conditioning58) Whereas the behavioral approach focuses on ________, the cognitive model targets _______ in explaining behavior.A) external events, mental processesB) mental processes, external eventsC) thought distortions, punishmentD) punishment, thought distortions59) ?I got a B in the course. I?ll never get into graduate school.? This statement typifies the cognitive distortion known asA) overgeneralizing.B) emotional reasoning.C) catastrophizing.D) magnifying.60) In Aaron Beck?s model of depression, the cognitive triad consists ofA) past, present, and future expectations.B) three types of negative thoughts.C) Freud?s id, ego and superego.D) three levels of the mind.61) Dr. Pambros returns Abnormal Psychology exams. Juanita, Kevin, and Morgan all receive grades of ?C.? Juanita is grateful to have passed. Kevin is devastated. Morgan is mildly disappointed but recognizes that there are three remaining exams that could boost his grade. How would the cognitive model explain the different responses of these students to the same event?A) Thoughts are not as important at the event itself.B) The event is essentially neutral.C) Grades are inherently powerful events.D) Grades are classic negative reinforcers.62) Carl Rogers proposed that phenomenology is critical in understanding an individual. Phenomenology means theA) difference between what one perceives and what one ought to do.B) subjective world of the individual.C) objective world of reality.D) degree to which objective reality and subjective reality are a fit.63) A message that implies ?I will love you if you graduate with honors? is an example ofA) unconditional positive regard.B) unconditional negative regard.C) conditional positive regard.D) conditional negative regard.64) While psychoanalytic and humanistic models assume that abnormality lies within the individual, ________ models assume that abnormal behavior must be understood in a larger context outside of the individual.A) phenomenologicalB) socioculturalC) sociopathicD) socioenvironmental65) Gender roles directly affect the ______ of abnormal behaviors.A) expressionB) causeC) severityD) chronicity66) Which of the following statements about women and abnormal behavior within a sociocultural context is TRUE?A) Biological factors affect rates of mental illness for women around the world regardless of contextual factors.B) Socioeconomic status is unrelated to rates of mental illness for women.C) Some contextual factors place women at higher risk for psychological disorders.D) Gender role expectations do not influence the development of abnormal behaviors.67) Ataque de nervios is a culture-bound syndrome found among Latinos. The notion that social forces play a role with respect to when this type of disorder occurs is supported by the fact that ataque symptomsA) differ depending on the culture in which they are expressed.B) are found in all Latino adolescents at some point in time.C) are seen only in those from large families.D) frequently begin after some form of social disruption.68) Latino youths born in the U.S. are ________ as likely to attempt suicide as foreignborn Latino youths.A) three timesB) twiceC) four timesD) five times69) Familism is a concept that stresses theA) importance of, and responsibility to, the family.B) significance of the size of the family in predicting abnormal behavior in an individual.C) importance of responsibility to the peer group as opposed to the importance of the family.D) relevance of birth order in identifying vulnerability for psychopathology.70) Which of the following statements is TRUE?A) Modern psychologists believe that psychopathology is physiologically based.B) Abnormal behavior may be best understood using a single theoretical framework.C) Understanding abnormal behaviors requires an integration of models.D) Sociocultural factors are the best explanation for disordered behavior.71) The diathesis-stress model of abnormal behavior assumes thatA) a person who has a genetic predisposition for a disorder will exhibit the disorder at some point in time.B) biology and environmental factors interact to determine the likelihood that a person will exhibit abnormal behavior.C) a ?diathesis? from the environment interacts with biological influences to produce disordered behavior.D) stress causes physiological changes that lead to disruptions in environmental supports.72) The biopsychosocial perspective, compared with the perspectives of Freud, Jung, and Rogers,A) focuses on early developments as the diathesis.B) adequately explains all disorders.C) is broader than the other models.D) assumes the nature of man to be good.73) Having a biological predisposition for a disorder means that a personA) will develop the full syndrome over the life span.B) has increased vulnerability to developing a disorder.C) will only develop a partial manifestation of the problem behavior.D) has a genetic mutation for the disorder.74) The biological, psychological, sociocultural, and biopsychosocial models all assume thatA) the cause of a dysfunctional behavior may be identified through research.B) there is an underlying physiological cause to abnormal behaviorC) environmental events trigger physiological changes.D) no single factor may be a determinant in manifesting abnormal behavior.75) Mario has just returned from his third deployment to Iraq. For several months after returning, he is unable to sleep and has difficulty dealing with flashbacks of mortar fire over the compound in which he worked. Using a biopsychosocial model, we might explain his problems as deriving fromA) the stress of deployment alone.B) a diathesis and the stress of deployment.C) a lack of social support.D) a failure in coping alone.
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