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GED215 Psychology of Adjustment




Question;Text:Authors:Publisher:Psychology For Living: Adjustment, Growth, and Behavior Today9th Edition, 2008ISBN: 0-13-222447-XKaren Grover Duffy and Eastwood AtwaterPearson/Prentice Hall925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701 Phone: 714-547-9625 Fax: 714-547-577703/09GED215Psychology of AdjustmentFinal ExaminationFinal Examination1Psychology of AdjustmentMultiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)1) The world as we know it today is characterized byA) more collectivism in comparison to individualismB) galloping technological changesC) slower social change than was witnessed in previous decadesD) a movement toward increased industrialization and fewer service industries2) The fear of technology is known asA) technophobiaB) electronosisC) decidophobiaD) computeritis3) What is the most popular (frequent) method used by Americans to fi nd infor- mation?A) radioB) newspapersC) InternetD) TV4) In today?s world, almost ________ percent of Americans use e-mail.A) 75B) 50C) 100D) 255) Which is NOT a technique to help the environment?A) recycleB) reproduceC) reuseD) reduce6) Truly autonomous people who are unafraid to make important decisions and who accept responsibility for their lives and their decisions areA) collectivisticB) self-actualizedC) normalisticD) decidoteric2Final ExaminationPsychology of Adjustment7) Researchers have found high stability across a life span for which personality trait?A) introversion-extroversionB) authoritarianismC) perfectionismD) self-esteem8) The highest degree of stability of personality has been found in the domain ofA) authoritarianismB) introversion-extroversionC) perfectionismD) self-esteem9) How does personal growth usually proceed?A) acknowledgment, dissatisfaction, reorganizationB) dissonance, neutrality, consonanceC) dissatisfaction, reorganization, acknowledgmentD) dissonance, consonance, neutrality10) The experience of personal growth usually ends with the stage ofA) changing our attitudesB) reorganizing our experienceC) acknowledging changeD) feeling anxiety and discomfort11) In which psychoanalytic stage did Freud say genuine love develops?A) analB) genitalC) latencyD) oral12) According to Erikson, the second stage of psychosocial development poses the developmental task ofA) autonomy vs. shameB) industry vs. inferiorityC) trust vs. mistrustD) initiative vs. guiltFinal Examination3Psychology of Adjustment13) The process by which we learn by observing is calledA) reinforcementB) punishmentC) observational learningD) learning theory14) ________ emphasizes the importance of learning and the environment rather than biological or unconscious drives.A) Jung?s analytical psychologyB) Bandura?s social learning theoryC) Erikson?s psychosocial theoryD) Freud?s psychodynamic theory15) Ken argued with Audra that they should give up their stressful jobs and move to a small town to start a winery. He was confi dent they would be successful. Ken has high levels ofA) self-effi cacyB) personality dynamismC) self-actualizing tendencyD) ego as well as id16) Humanistic psychology has received national prominence asA) deconstructivistB) the third force in psychologyC) emphasizing individual samenessD) Freud?s theory17) According to the concept of positive regard, children automatically develop a need forA) behavior rewardsB) acceptance by othersC) social consciousnessD) valuing self18) According to Maslow, self-actualizing peopleA) have reached a healthier level of functioning than the rest of usB) are more self-centered than the average personC) have met all their life goalsD) are exempt from anxiety as well as neurotic behavior4Final ExaminationPsychology of Adjustment19) According to Maslow, self-actualization isA) more common among children than adultsB) rarely achieved until young adulthoodC) a lifelong task that is rarely completedD) usually attained in Western but not Eastern societies20) With advancing age, individual differences in development becomeA) no differentB) less pronouncedC) more pronouncedD) none of the above describe advancing age21) The developmental task of leaving home most importantly involvesA) differentiating one?s self from one?s parentsB) getting married and having a familyC) cutting all ties to one?s parentsD) moving out of the family home22) In the last decade, a trend seen in young adults? behavior is thatA) more young adults are moving in with their parentsB) more young adults are majoring in humanities and social sciencesC) many are less concerned with social issues, such as environmentD) more females than males between 20-24 years old are living with their parents23) Women in midlife oftenA) worry about their biological clockB) avoid schoolingC) avoid adoptionD) avoid the workforce24) Is there any way to predict Alzheimer?s disease?A) yes, mild cognitive impairment at midlife often predicts later Alzheimer?sB) yes, the way to test for it is to test for memory loss when it is fi rst suspectedC) no, it is found only upon autopsyD) no, there is no way to predict nor to diagnose it for sure Final Examination5Psychology of Adjustment25) Viagra is forA) men only, not womenB) older men in their change of lifeC) arthritis in men and womenD) young people, both male and female26) Which factor(s) account(s) for an individual?s desire to retire?A) attitudes toward retirementB) perceived adequacy of incomeC) general healthD) all of the above27) What is true of the Social Security system?A) the government can be depended on to help the elderly even if they have never worked a day in their livesB) the age for eligibility is risingC) individuals automatically receive it upon retirementD) all of these are true28) The more active a person is, the more satisfi ed a person remains is explainedbyA) disenchantmentB) the climactericC) activity theoryD) disenfranchisement29) All those perceptions of ?I? and ?me? together with the feelings and beliefs associated with them are called theA) social selfB) ideal selfC) real selfD) self-concept30) The notion that each of us has multiple selves really meansA) there is no coherent core of the self-conceptB) everyone has multiple personality disordersC) there is no such thing as the self-conceptD) the self-concept is a cluster of self images 6Final ExaminationPsychology of Adjustment31) Experiences that are inconsistent with our existing self-concept tend to beA) admitted fully into conscious awarenessB) distorted or denied to awarenessC) incorporated into our ideal selfD) labeled accurately32) Experiences that are consistent with both our sensory reactions and self-- conceptA) are denied to awarenessB) are usually distortedC) are rarely accurately labeledD) comprise the core of our self-concept33) Low self-esteem is characterized byA) trying so hard to improve his math scoresB) poor performance on spelling testsC) refusal to accept praiseD) all of the above34) According to the text, our perception of how others view us is keyed toA) who we would like to beB) what others think of usC) the way we see ourselvesD) our parental infl uence35) Research demonstrates that most individualsA) expect higher grades than they receiveB) underestimate their own intelligenceC) overestimate how salient their own behaviors and appearance are to othersD) feel self-feedback is more important than feedback from others36) One of the best ways to handle personal criticism is to take it asA) a matter that requires you to defend yourselfB) a matter which requires immediate actionC) a cue that action may be requiredD) the refl ection of another person?s envy Final Examination7Psychology of Adjustment37) During the early stages of psychotherapy and self-improvement, people tend to express a lot ofA) rejection of the therapistB) self-insightC) self-dissatisfactionD) self-acceptance38) Which of the following is true about the ideal body thought to be desired by the opposite sex?A) women believe men want a thin woman, but men do not confi rm thisB) college women think men want a woman who is thinner with larger breasts than the woman the men say they actually desireC) college men think women want a man who is thinner and taller than the man the women say they actually wantD) the type of woman men actually want is dissimilar to the body ideal held by women39) With regard to health behaviors, which personality trait enables us to adopt healthy and therefore preventive behaviors?A) competitivenessB) self-effi cacyC) introspectionD) conformity40) A return to previous behavior is calledA) addictionB) reboundC) relapseD) none of the above41) Women doctorsA) spend more time with patientsB) explain medical terminology betterC) allow patients to talk moreD) all of the above 8Final ExaminationPsychology of Adjustment42) According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture?s food pyramid, what sub- stance should we consume the most of?A) meatB) breadsC) dairyD) fruits and vegetables43) Which statement is true about dreams?A) dreams are unnecessaryB) dreams are realistic and meaningfulC) dream analysis is well agreed uponD) dream time decreases as we age44) Physical fi tness is associated withA) fi ghting some cancersB) reducing anxietyC) improved moodD) all of the above45) ________ locus of control is when a person believes they have control, ________ locus of control is when a person feels an outside source has control.A) internal, externalB) external, internalC) personal, externalD) personal, internal46) One of the most reliable predictors of who will complete or drop out of pro- grams for weight loss or substance abuse is the individual?sA) educational levelB) perceived controlC) genderD) marital status47) When we want to lead and inspire others, we shouldA) focus only on the negative aspects of changing our waysB) focus on short-term but negative effectsC) focus on being optimistic and emphasizing the positiveD) focus on building empathy Final Examination9Psychology of Adjustment48) In the recommended process for making wise decisions, the fi fth and fi nal stage consists ofA) accepting the challengeB) assessing your actions and decisionC) following through with your decisionD) searching for alternatives49) Which of the following is an example of reactance?A) driving slowly because someone is tailgating to get you to speed upB) reading a book you have always wanted to read just for sheer pleasureC) fi nishing a crossword puzzle and feeling very proud of yourselfD) giving money to charity every year and giving the same amount50) The technique of listing the advantages and disadvantages of a given course of action before making a decision is calledA) values clarifi cationB) direct decision therapyC) creative confl ict managementD) the balance sheet procedure51) The need that appears at the top of Maslow?s hierarchy isA) belongingB) physiological needsC) safety needsD) self-actualization52) According to Maslow?s hierarchical model of needs, the most urgent need isA) the highest level of unmet needsB) the need for self-actualizationC) the need for security and other social needsD) the lowest level of unmet needs53) Intrinsic motivation involves active engagement out of personal interest, while external motivation involvesA) engagement to satisfy familyB) a need to have others guide youC) engagement as a means to an endD) a desire to help others 10Final ExaminationPsychology of Adjustment54) Zuckerman and others suggest that the need for sensation-seeking behaviorA) is entirely due to our life circumstances, especially our fi eld of employment, if the job is boring, we seek sensations elsewhereB) may be partly biologicalC) becomes stronger with ageD) is not affected by social infl uences55) An effi cacious person says:A) ?Why didn?t I do this yesterday??B) ?We don?t have to be perfect.?C) ?I can do this. ?D) ?I may do it now or never.?56) Based on his cross-cultural research, Matsumoto claims that a seventh universal emotion expressed on the human face isA) frustrationB) loveC) joyD) contempt57) A basic principle of person perception isA) our fi rst impressions are not the most lasting impressionsB) people form impressions of others only after they have gleaned lots of infor- mationC) not all of us form fi rst impressions of other people, we wait to pass judgmentD) people tend to form extensive impressions of others on the basis of very little information58) Our fi rst impressions of people are generally based onA) sound psychological principlesB) very little informationC) careful observationsD) a lot of experience with the person Final Examination11Psychology of Adjustment59) When it comes to physical attraction between people of the opposite sex, the ?matching hypothesis? implies thatA) females seek males who match their parents? imagesB) males seek females like their mothers, and females seek males like their fathersC) we are attracted to people who reciprocate our liking of themD) we seek people who are about as attractive as we are60) Shyness in the extreme is called social anxiety, orA) social phobiaB) unfamiliarityC) psychopathicD) biological predisposition61) Who is shy?A) teens are the shiest age group in AmericaB) women are shier than menC) adults are shier than childrenD) whites are shier than minorities62) Which statement is true about loneliness?A) people with high emotional intelligence experience greater lonelinessB) individuals whose parents died experience increased lonelinessC) people who are high in empathy and aware of their emotions tend to be lonelyD) some of the loneliest people had divorced parents when they were young63) What is the correct sequence of group formation, according to the text?A) forming, storming, norming, and performingB) storming, forming, norming, and performingC) norming, storming, performing, and formingD) forming, storming, performing, and norming64) In what type of social infl uence situation do we follow direct commands from others?A) interpersonal attractionB) complianceC) conformityD) obedience 12Final ExaminationPsychology of Adjustment65) The ?great man theory? found ________ traits to be correlated with effective U.S. presidents.A) 3B) 4C) 5D) 666) Which set of terms best fi t together?A) in-group, task-oriented, groupthinkB) great man theory, women, conformityC) collectives, conformity, group polarizationD) emotional intelligence, charismatic leader, transformational leader67) The person who remains neutral in a confl ict but renders a binding solution to the confl ict is known as a(n)A) mindguardB) arbitratorC) mediatorD) none of these is correct68) People who score high on the Realistic theme of the Strong Interest Inventory would most likely enjoy a job working as anA) accountantB) biologistC) engineerD) stockbroker69) Which is NOT a major reason that job satisfaction tends to rise with age and/ or years on the job?A) knowing offi ce politics and how to circumvent themB) having more realistic job expectationsC) job securityD) rising pay70) Which of the following is an example of sexual harassment according to the text?s defi nition?A) a male coworker whistles at his female colleague who wears a short skirt to work, she is so distressed by this that she never again wears a short skirt to work Final Examination13Psychology of AdjustmentB) a male employer puts his arm around his secretary who is uncomfortable each time he does thisC) a male coworker often tells dirty jokes which embarrass all the female em- ployeesD) all of these are examples, especially if the behavior impedes the performance of the women71) According to a Lou Harris poll, compared to workers in the recent past, the average American worker todayA) has the same amount of leisure timeB) works fewer hours a weekC) has less leisure timeD) has more leisure time72) The most common reason Americans take a vacation is forA) family togethernessB) escapeC) self-discoveryD) relaxation73) The Masters and Johnson team identifi ed ________ stages in the sexual response cycle.A) 6B) 5C) 4D) 774) When she is sure she won?t see anyone she knows, Sveta occasionally goes out in public dressed like a man. She probably isA) a transsexualB) a crossdresserC) intersexedD) autoerotic 14Final ExaminationPsychology of Adjustment75) According to the text, the ideal type of love isA) intimate loveB) passionate loveC) companionate loveD) consummate love76) Which one of the following birth control techniques is regarded as most effec- tive?A) diaphragmB) cervical capC) combined birth-control pillsD) condom77) Which STD if left untreated can cause brain damage, blindness, or paralysis?A) genital herpesB) syphilisC) chlamydiaD) all three of these78) In the triangular theory of love, ________ is the motivational aspect of love.A) passionB) commitmentC) intimacyD) romance79) According to studies comparing people?s current romantic relationships with their childhood attachment styles, individuals who exhibit the ?anxious-am- bivalent? patternA) are the most cynical about romantic loveB) report their romances last the longestC) are the most prone to jealousyD) fall in love easily, but rarely fi nd true love80) The divorce rate in the U.S. now stands at ________ percent.A) 50B) 75C) 25D) 5 Final Examination15Psychology of Adjustment81) EFT is a technique toA) change thought and emotional patternsB) intervene in disputesC) handle family budgetsD) aid in sexual dysfunction82) Studies of divorced people have shown thatA) most remarry in the fi rst year after their divorceB) few of them are willing ever to marry anyoneC) most divorced people marry another divorced personD) none of these is true about divorced people83) According to Hans Selye, stress which has a benefi cial effect on us is calledA) eustressB) hypostressC) distressD) hyperstress84) What are common reactions to terrorism?A) feeling tenseB) sleep problemsC) feeling numbD) all of the above85) In his fi rst week as an air-traffi c controller, Harley is already complaining of headaches and fatigue. Harley?s symptoms are characteristic of which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?A) the intermediate stageB) resistanceC) exhaustionD) alarm86) Cumulative changes that refl ect the cost to the body for adapting to stressful demands is calledA) allostatic loadB) acting outC) homeostasisD) repression16Final ExaminationPsychology of Adjustment87) Withdrawal from a stressful situationA) is a viable problem-solving response under some conditionsB) is almost always an unhealthy, maladjusted response to stressC) is a temporary symptom-reducing response, so it rarely worksD) is the preferred response in almost all stressful situations88) In terms of mental disorders, most mental health professionals greatly attend toA) the statistical rarity of the behaviorB) the legal model of insanityC) the person?s reputation among his or her peersD) the individual?s level of personal distress89) With regard to mental disorder and diversity, which statement(s) is/are true?A) minorities in treatment receive poorer quality careB) minorities are underrepresented in mental health researchC) minorities have less access to mental health servicesD) all of these are true90) Which is not a category of compulsions?A) hoarderB) slackerC) repeaterD) orderer91) In contrast to major depression, bipolar disorderA) is more common in the general populationB) is more prevalent among women than menC) is more prevalent among married peopleD) usually occurs before age 3092) Which of the following are obvious symptoms of psychosis?A) fear of being alone and fear of high placesB) overeating and anxietyC) delusions and hallucinationsD) none of these is a symptom of psychosis Final Examination17Psychology of Adjustment93) Which type of therapy emphasizes the importance of the therapist?s attitude of acceptance and empathetic understanding of the client?A) psychoanalytic therapyB) rational-emotive therapyC) person-centered therapyD) gestalt therapy94) The notion that the people who can help you best are those who have similar problems is a common assumption inA) gestalt therapyB) contextual therapyC) mutual-help groupsD) social skills training95) The class of medication for mental disorders that has increased most dra- matically isA) lithium productsB) antianxiety drugsC) antipsychotic medicationD) antidepressants96) ________ has been shown by multiple studies to reduce depression.A) Eating more salt and less sugarB) Exercise, such as joggingC) Eating more sugar and less saltD) Listening to classical music97) People tend to overestimate the risk of death from causes such asA) strokesB) heart attacksC) accidentsD) diabetes98) Mary is less fearful of death than many older people her age. According to the text, a major reason for Mary?s diminished fear of death probably is herA) having a college educationB) genuine belief in the afterlifeC) feeling that ?it can?t happen to me?D) having cared for a terminally ill friend 18Final ExaminationPsychology of Adjustment99) The healthy process of grief work involvesA) avoiding formal funeral services for othersB) wearing mourning clothesC) not talking about one?s lossD) sharing one?s feelings of grief100) What is a typical response of caregivers to long-term caregiving?A) depressionB) relief when the cared for person diesC) self-satisfactionD) resentment


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