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Psychology Multiple Choice Questions

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Question;Question 1The primary concern of an institutional review board is todetermine whether deception is necessary.determine whether informed consent will be obtained.ensure that the safety of research participants is adequately protected.evaluate the scientific merit of a proposed study.3 pointsQuestion 2Tammy?s experiment compared the effectiveness of videotape and textbook presentation of a history lesson. Unexpectedly, her demeanor changed with each treatment condition. She appeared worried during the videotape condition because the audiovisual equipment periodically broke down. In contrast, she seemed relaxed in the textbook condition during which subjects read from a book. Which problem does this illustrate?confounding by a context variableexperimenter biashistory threatselection threat3 pointsQuestion 3Professor Smith?s class was stunned. She mistakenly included questions from chapter 5 on an exam that was supposed to cover chapters 1-4. In appealing their low grades, the students should diplomatically question the ____of this exam.construct validitycontent validityface validitypredictive validity3 pointsQuestion 4Pavlov?s classical conditioning research contained an element of serendipity because Pavlovdid not recognize the importance of what he found.discovered this learning process through intuition.intended to study stomach secretions.predicted this form of conditioning based on prior research.3 pointsQuestion 5Laboratory experiments may trade _____ for precision.controlgeneralizabilityrealismboth generalizability and realism3 pointsQuestion 6To study the possible causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer, researchers start with human _____ studies and then progress to animal _____ studies.experimental, experimentalexperimental, quasi-experimentalquasi-experimental, experimentalcorrelational, quasi-experimental3 pointsQuestion 7Which of these should be controlled using constancy of conditions instead of elimination?a poster for a controversial speakerbright room lightinginterruptions by students opening the doorvisual distractions by classmates outside of the room3 pointsQuestion 8In a true experiment, an experimenter ____ the independent variable and ____ the dependent variable.manipulates, measuresselects, manipulatesmeasures, manipulatesselects, measures3 pointsQuestion 9Theories are explanations of events thatapply to all situationsare supported by a majority of studiesprovide interim explanationsare supported by a majority of studies and provide interim explanations3 pointsQuestion 10What does a double-blind experiment control?demand characteristicsexperimenter biasconfounding by context variablesdemand characteristics and experimenter bias3 pointsQuestion 11A _____ is a statistical review procedure that summarizes and quantifies multiple research findings on an individual topic.case studyfactor analytical studyliterature searchmeta-analysis3 pointsQuestion 12Which human experiment could not be justified, regardless of the knowledge that might be gained?studying the effectiveness of subliminal advertising on product recognitionstudying the effectiveness of a drug that produces complete muscular paralysis in treating alcohol addictionstudying the effect of mild sleep deprivation on cognitive performancestudying the effect of shift rotation schedules on employee absenteeism3 pointsQuestion 13Since Tim belongs to a Bible study group, a classmate mistakenly assumes that he doesn?t drink alcoholic beverages and always votes Republican. This example of nonscientific inference illustratesconfirmatory biaoverconfidence biasstereotypingthe gambler's fallacy3 pointsQuestion 14_____ is the primary resource currently used by psychologists to find journal articles.FirstSearchLexis/NexisPsychINFOPsychSource3 pointsQuestion 15Falsifiable means that a hypothesis isalways false.capable of being disproved.fruitful.parsimonious.3 pointsQuestion 16Which of these must be established by institutions engaging in research with human subjects?human research review committeeinstitutional animal care and use committeeinstitutional review boardsubjects use committee3 pointsQuestion 17Balancing is a control procedure thatdistributes the effect of physical variables equally across the treatment conditions.distributes the effect of the independent variable equally across all of the treatment conditions.ensures that subjects in all conditions experience nearly identical physical variables.removes potentially confounding physical variables from the testing situation.3 pointsQuestion 18When an experimenter fails to randomly assign subjects to different experimental conditions, a ____ threat is present since treatment groups may differ on subject variables.selectionstatistical regressionsubject mortalitytesting3 pointsQuestion 19An experimenter provided two groups of rats different quantities of food for successfully completing the same maze. She controlled the kind of food and the amount of time the rats had access to the food. She reported that both groups of rats committed the same number of errors in learning the maze. The number of errors wasa confounding variable.a subject variable.the dependent variable.the independent variable.3 pointsQuestion 20Which of these techniques to control demand characteristics involves deception?cover storydouble-blind experimentquasi-experimentsingle-blind experiment3 pointsQuestion 21Systematic data gathering, noting relationships, and offering explanations are central tocommonsense psychologythe content of sciencenonscientific inferencethe process of science3 pointsQuestion 22In a pretest/posttest design, participants may improve with repeated testing due to increased familiarity with a test. This problem is calledbidirectional causationpractice effectregression to the meana third variable problem3 pointsQuestion 23Volunteer subjects may differ from nonvolunteers in that volunteers may beless authoritarian.more politically and socially liberal.more intelligent.all of these3 pointsQuestion 24Researchers conduct experiments in laboratories to achieve the greatest degree ofcontrolobjectivitygeneralizabilityrealism3 pointsQuestion 25Experimenters generally want subjects to be as na?ve as possible concerning the experimental hypothesis to reduce confounding bycontext variable.demand characteristics.experimenter bias.response sets.3 pointsQuestion 26A review of prior studies in an area may providehelp in identifying important issues.information on previous important issues.new research ideas.all of these3 pointsQuestion 27In single-blind experiments,experimenters are unaware of the treatments given to subjects.experimenters encourage subjects to guess the experimental hypothesis.subjects do not know which treatment they are receiving.subjects do not receive feedback on their performance.3 pointsQuestion 28Kirk hypothesizes that his dog dreams in color. This is not an experimental hypothesis because itcannot be stated in an "if...them" format.cannot be tested.in an analytic statement.is not a parsimonious statement3 pointsQuestion 29Both correlational designs and quasi-experiments are often higher in ____ than laboratory experiments.external validityimposition of unitsinternal validitymanipulation of antecedents3 pointsQuestion 30Which of these correlations would permit the most accurate prediction?-0.93-0.20+0.81+1.323 pointsQuestion 31A longitudinal study that observes first-born children?s behavior before and after the birth of a sibling is particularly vulnerable to a ____ threat since rapid cognitive and physical change normally occur at this age.historymaturationselectiontesting3 pointsQuestion 32In experiments, researchers most often achieve control over possible explanations byrandom assignment of subjects to different treatment conditions or use of within-subjects designs.presenting a treatment condition in an identical manner to all subjects.keeping the environment, the procedures, and the measuring instruments constant for all subjects in the experiment.using all of these methods.3 pointsQuestion 33Researchers conduct experiments in laboratories to achieve the greatest degree ofcontrol.objectivity.generalizability.realism

 

Paper#59859 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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