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PSY 501 - Developmental Psychology MCQs

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Question;PSY 501Developmental Psychology Text:Author(s): Publisher:Human Development: A Cultural ApproachFirst Edition, 2012ISBN-13: 9780205595266Jeffrey Jensen ArnettPearsonMultiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)1. Who did developmental researchers focus on studying because they assumed that the processes of development were universal?a. Mexicans b. Europeans c. Canadians d. Americans2. What is the current total fertility rate (TFR) worldwide?a. 1.4b. 2.8c. 4.2d. 5.63. What is probably the oldest known conception of the life course, written about 3,000 years ago?a. the Dharmashastras b. the Biblec. the Koran d. the Talmud4. What is Freud?s theory of human development?a. bio-sexual theoryb. psychosexual theory c. sexual stage theory d. libido-drive theory5. According to the text, what is a researcher?s idea about one possible answer to the question of interest?a. a scientific idea b. a hypothesisc. a proof d. a law6. When participants are provided with specific responses to choose from on a questionnaire, what type of format is being used?a. open-ended question format b. closed-question formatc. stream of consciousness format d. multiple choice format7. What recessive disorder results in non-normal shaped blood cells that clog up blood vessels and cause pain, increased susceptibility to disease, and early death?a. Tay-Sachs b. trisomy-21c. sickle-cell anemia d. malaria8. A person with an XY pairing of chromosomes is a, whereas a person with an XX pairing of chromosomes is a.a. male, female b. female, malec. homogenetic inheritance, polygenetic inheritance d. polygenetic inheritance, homogenetic inheritance9. Who are generally carriers of X-linked disorders?a. females b. malesc. individuals who have been exposed to teratogens d. individuals with a trisomy10. The structure that will form the structures that will provide protection and nourishment for the newly formed organism is the.a. umbilical cord b. placentac. embryonic disk d. trophoblast11. By the end of the third week the neural tube begins to form. This structure will eventually become.a. the skull and torso b. legs and armsc. the spinal cord and braind. lungs and the digestive system12. Children born with chromosomal problems are almost always born to parents with.a. the very same chromosomal problem b. similar genetic disordersc. above average intelligenced. no genetic or chromosomal problems13. According to the text, oxytocin is released from the. a. fetus?s liverb. mother?s uterus c. fetus?s placentad. mother?s pituitary gland14. During what stage is the umbilical cord usually cut and tied?a. crowningb. active laborc. transitional labord. The third stage of labor15. Compared to other animals, the birth process for human beings is complicated by the. a. size of the infant?s headb. infant?s muscle to fat ratioc. amount of amniotic fluid expelledd. mother?s expectation of the birthing process16. What are the ?soft spots? on a neonate called?a. suturesb. cranium areas c. fontanelsd. soft spots17. How long does it take before the neonate has regained all of the weight that he or she lost right after birth?a. 2 weeks b. 3 weeks c. 4 weeks d. 5 weeks18. For American infants, what percent are born with an Apgar score of 7 to 10?a. 52%b. 64%c. 76%d. 98%19. One way that neonates? sleep is distinctive is that they spend a high proportion of their sleep in.a. alpha stage sleep b. a coma-like sleepc. a position that is face downd. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep20. In cultures where babies are held or carried around much of the day. a. prolonged episodes of crying are commonb. prolonged episodes of crying are rarec. they cry because infants need time aloned. they cry because they sense that their mothers are frustrated with them21. Growth and development proceed from the middle of the body outward, which is known as the.a. head first, body second principle b. cephalocaudal principlec. proximodistal principle d. top-down principle22. As described in the text, which of the following are appropriate methods to soothe an infant who is teething?a. the use of a teething ring, a cold drink, or topical pain relievers b. the use of pediatric oral denturesc. the use of children?s acetaminophen or ibuprofen d. the use of a cotton ball that is soaked in whiskey23. is a tiny gap between neurons. a. A neurotransmitterb. The synapse c. A dendrited. Myelin24. When neuronal connections that are used become stronger and faster and the neuronal connections that are not used wither away, what is happening?a. brain deathb. axonal withering c. synaptic pruningd. intellectual development25. What is the leading cause of death for infants between birth and one year of age in developed countries?a. accidents b. SIDSc. AIDSd. genetic disorders26. An infant between the ages of birth and 2 would be in which of Piaget?s cognitive stages?a. sensorimotor b. preoperationalc. concrete operations d. formal operations27. Secondary circular reactions involve activity in relation to the. a. infant?s own bodyb. parentc. external world d. siblings28. What approach that attempts to understand cognitive development views development as continuous?a. information-processing approach b. behavioral theoryc. Piaget?s cognitive developmental theory d. Typological Advancement theory29. During toddlerhood children do not need as much of this to maintain a constant body temperature?a. warm clothes b. mother?s body c. body haird. body fat30. Which of the following is a protein deficiency that primarily affects toddlers in developing nations and leads to a range of symptoms such as lethargy, irritability, and thinning of hair?a. kwashiorkorb. micronutrients c. eczemad. tuberculosis31. How many neurons does the brain contain when the toddler is 2 years old?a. twice as many as at birthb. four times as many as at birth c. half as many as at birthd. the same total number of neurons32. Two possible reasons why toddlers have an increased frequency of waking at night are. a. teething and an increased sense of selfb. increased physiological response and increased hormone production c. nocturnal enuresis and increased fidgetingd. decreased autonomic nervous system and increased parasympathetic response33. Piaget?s fifth sensorimotor stage is. a. simple reflexesb. secondary circular reactions c. tertiary circular reactionsd. mental representations34. is the basis of human language. a. Deferred imitationb. Mental representationc. Unconscious symbolism d. Object permanence35. Which of the following are secondary emotions?a. sadness, disgust, and joy b. anger, fear, and happinessc. shame, guilt, and embarrassment d. surprise, sadness, and anger36. When do children begin to use personal pronouns for the first time (e.g., ?I,? ?me,? etc.) and refer to themselves by their own names?a. 9 months b. 12 months c. 18 months d. 24 months37. What percentage of North American children have at least one dental cavity by age five years?a. 5%b. 10%c. 20%d. 40%38. What is the brain system that is involved in attention?a. cerebellumb. hippocampusc. reticular formation d. corpus callosum39. Which of the following elements is responsible for the growth of strong bones and teeth?a. calcium b. zincc. fluorided. potassium40. What is the name of the Piagetian substage in which children are first capable of representational thought and of using symbols to represent the world?a. formal operationsb. representational operations c. systematic thoughtd. symbolic function41. What is one of the criticisms that other cognitive theorists and researchers have regarding Piaget?s theory of cognitive development during the preoperational stage? They believe that development is actually much more.a. vacillating and not predictable b. stable and rarely changedc. stage-like and less continuousd. continuous and much less stage-like42. Children from what group in the United States especially benefited cognitively from preschool?a. families who had parents who were professionals b. affluent familiesc. Midwestern families d. low-income families43. What is defined as the practices that parents exhibit in relation to their children and their beliefs about these practices?a. child?parent practicesb. parenting learning strategies c. parenting stylesd. discipline strategies44. In what types of cultures do parents expect that their authority will be obeyed without question and without requiring an explanation?a. Western culturesb. traditional culturesc. nontraditional cultures d. native cultures45. In middle childhood physical growth continues at a slow but steady pace. How many inches per year does the average child gain in height during this time?a. 2 to 3 inches b. 5 to 6 inches c. 8 to 9 inchesd. 11 to 12 inches46. Internationally, children aged 6 to 10 years are considered to be overweight if. a. they eat more than 2,000 calories a dayb. fail to exercise for more than 30 minutes per day c. have a BMI that exceeds 18d. have 20% or more body fat47. In the U.S., rates of overweight and obesity are higher in. a. ethnic minority groupsb. high income familiesc. first-generation families d. White American families48. What Piagetian concept describes the ability of children to understand that the quantity of an object has not changed although its shape has?a. concept shifting b. critical thinking c. reversibilityd. decentering49. What is the disorder referred to when individuals have difficulties in maintaining attention?a. attention persistence disorder b. attention deficit disorderc. attention control disorderd. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder50. What are the negative side effects of using medication for the treatment of ADHD?a. slower physical growth and higher risk of depressionb. lethargy and a larger appetite that increases the likelihood of obesity c. decreased intelligence and delayed cognitive developmentd. loss of bone density and delayed motor coordination51. Ambivalence is.a. two ends of one extremeb. experiencing two contradictory emotions at once c. an unexpected and undesirable emotional state d. a happy but unexpected surprise52. What is the term that is used to describe a person?s perception and evaluation of him- or herself?a. self-concept b. self-esteemc. self-evidenced. self-comparison53. By the mid-teens, testosterone production in males is how many times greater than it was before puberty?a. 8b. 12c. 16d. 2054. Considerable thickening of synaptic connections occurs around the time puberty begins during a process neuroscientists call.a. overproduction b. pruningc. myelinationd. synaptic expansion55. What is the last structure of the brain to complete its growth process?a. cortexb. cerebellumc. hypothalamus d. frontal lobes56. As described by Piaget, the child who solves the pendulum task and can explain their rationale is closer to the stage of cognitive development.a. sensorimotor b. preoperationalc. concrete operations d. formal operations57. People who demonstrate the capacity for formal operations tend to use it selectively, for. a. problems and situations that involve social cognitive reasoning and socialcognitive problem-solvingb. problems and situations that involve low to moderate creativity and ingenuityc. problems and situations in which they have the most experience and knowledge d. problems and situations that involve personal consequences58. Which of the following are the two keys to cognition in the information processing approach?a. attention and memoryb. neural growth and synaptic connections c. parietal and occipital lobesd. visual images and the management of cognitive load59. Comparing preadolescent 5th graders to adolescent 8th graders, Larson and Richards (1994)found that the percentage of time participants experienced as ?very happy?.a. increased by 60% b. increased by 20% c. decreased by 30% d. decreased by 50%60. David Gilmore (1990) concluded that in most cultures an adolescent boy must demonstrate three capacities before he can be considered a man. What are the three capacities?a. perform, promote, and prosper b. proud, perfect, and politec. proficient, pure, and politicald. provide, protect, and procreate61. What are five characteristics that distinguish emerging adulthood from other age periods?a. It is the age of identity explorations, instability, being self-focused, feeling in- between, and possibilities.b. It is the age of stability, being other-focused, identity diffusion, feeling in- between, and stagnation.c. It is the age of identity moratorium, stability, feeling marginalized, being self- focused, and developing a global worldview.d. It is the age of instability, being other-focused, identity foreclosure, feeling marginalized, and possibilities.62. The time period of emerging adulthood is more likely to be a part of, and absent in. a. developed countries, undeveloped countriesb. undeveloped countries, developed countries c. collective cultures, individualistic cultures d. individualistic cultures, collective cultures63. Cardiac output peaks in which of the following time periods of life?a. childhoodb. adolescencec. emerging adulthood d. middle adulthood64. Which of the following best describes pragmatism?a. using language and mental images as a basis for problem-solving on tangible concrete itemsb. coordinating sensory modalities with motor skills as a basis for an individual?s perception of his or her worldc. applying rigid logical thought to solve real-life situations that contain complexities and inconsistenciesd. adapting logical thought to solve practical real-life situations that contain complexities and inconsistencies65. is often seeing situations and issues in polarized terms?an act is either right or wrong, with no in-between, a statement is either true or false, regardless of the nuances or the situation to which it is being applied.a. Dualistic thinkingb. Situational judgmentsc. Relative-hypothesis testing d. Concrete thought66. What type of education or training program takes place beyond secondary school?a. primary education b. tertiary educationc. quaternary education d. technical education67. A(n) occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group.a. stereotypeb. discriminationc. negative behaviorsd. unconscious association68. The collapse of communism began in Eastern Europe in 1989 and was initiated by. a. individuals in their late teensb. individuals in emerging adulthood c. individuals in middle adulthoodd. individuals in late adulthood69. What do emerging adults in Korea and China view as the most important criterion that signals adulthood?a. completing military serviceb. supporting a family financiallyc. being able to support their parents financially d. emotional self-control70. In traditional cultures the collectivistic value of is more highly prized than the individualistic value of.a. self-promotion, assertiveness b. assertiveness, self-promotionc. independence, interdependence d. interdependence, independence71. What do about 30% to 50% of Western and Asian women do to their hair during young adulthood?a. cut it very short for convenience b. color or dye itc. replace it with wigs and hair pieces d. nothing72. Although the body of research on IQ showing a relation between IQ and adult career success is large, nearly all of it is concentrated.a. in developed countriesb. in non-Western countriesc. solely in the United Statesd. exclusively outside of the United States73. For Piaget, the culmination of cognitive maturation is the attainment of formal operations around age.a. 11b. 18c. 20d. 2574. What type of love involves feelings of closeness and emotional attachment?a. intimacyb. commitment c. passiond. desire75. What type of love characterizes most friendships and involves intimacy without passion or commitment?a. likingb. infatuation c. empty loved. romantic love76. What type of love integrates passion, intimacy, and commitment? This type of love represents the ideal for many people.a. romantic loveb. companionate love c. fatuous loved. consummate love77. During middle adulthood, which of the following is more likely to experience hair thinning and baldness?a. a male of European descentb. a female of European descent c. a male of Asian descentd. a female of Asian descent78. What are the tiny hairs in the inner ear known as?a. tympanic hairsb. incus, stapes, and malleus c. ciliad. hearing hairs79. At what age does menopause usually occur?a. between 20 and 30 years of age b. between 30 and 40 years of age c. between 40 and 50 years of age d. between 50 and 60 years of age80. Who was the theorist who first described fluid and crystallized intelligence?a. Raymond Cattell b. Jean Piagetc. Alfred Binetd. Robert Sternberg81. represents the accumulation of a person?s culturally based knowledge, language, and understanding of social conventions.a. G-intelligenceb. Crystallized intelligence c. Fluid intelligenced. Multiple intelligence82. The results of the Seattle Longitudinal Study indicate that is a period when many aspects of intelligence reach their peak.a. early adulthood b. young adulthood c. midlifed. late life83. At what period in the lifespan is contentment with the self the highest?a. emerging adulthood b. young adulthoodc. middle adulthood d. late adulthood84. A cross-sectional study of American adults from their late teens to their seventies found similar enhancements in self-development in middle adulthood. Which of the following are qualities of self that increased with age?a. self compliance, self-mastery, and the empathetic self b. self acceptance, economy, and environmental masteryc. the self as man, the self as a woman, and the self as androgynous d. the I-self, the me-self, and the we-self85. In Asian cultures, the tradition of filial piety is.a. obedience and respect to parents, no matter how old they are b. honor and trust to everyone in the familyc. loyalty to the laws and codes of societyd. commitment to one?s family and their village86. Countries that have a birth rate that is below 2.1 children per woman. a. will see a decline in their total populationb. will see an increase in the total populationc. will see a leveling off in their total population d. are unable to predict population values87. What is the ratio of the number of person aged 65 years or older to the number of person aged 20 to 64 years in Japan?a. 25%b. 35%c. 45%d. 55%88. The is a classic psychology experiment in which people are asked to indicate the color of a word flashing on a screen, but the word itself presents contrary information.a. Stroop testb. Myers-Briggsc. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory d. Q-sort89. Which of the following best describes working memory?a. memory for information currently the focus of your attention b. memories that are stored in the cerebral cortexc. memories that are below one?s level of awarenessd. memories for simplistic motor skills that are stored in the cerebellum90. The cerebellum is, whereas the frontal lobes are.a. responsible for planning and judgment, involved in balance and coordination b. involved in balance and coordination, responsible for planning and judgment c. responsible for auditory and visual processing, involved in sensory and motorskillsd. involved in sensory and motor skills, responsible for auditory and visual processing91. According to Erikson, ego involves looking back on one?s life and accepting the outcome of it, whereas, ego entails regrets and bitterness about the course of one?s life, and a conclusion that it has not gone well and now cannot be changed.a. inferiority, mistrust b. mistrust, inferiority c. integrity, despaird. despair, integrity92. According to Carstensen, at late adulthood, the goals that people have for their social relationships are.a. knowledge-based b. emotions-based c. task-basedd. conflict-based93. Until the past century, was the life stage with the highest mortality rates. a. the prenatal periodb. infancyc. toddlerhoodd. early childhood94. Which of the following dramatically reduced death rates due to infectious diseases during the20th century?a. access to health care, health insurance, and better trained physicians b. economic wealth, improvements in medicine, and the automobilec. vaccinations, antibiotics, and better sanitationd. better nutritional foods, vaccinations, and antibiotics95. In developed countries deaths under age 5 years are rare and occur most often due to. a. SIDSb. infectious diseases c. accidentsd. abuse96. In developed countries most people die in. a. a hospitalb. homec. hospice cared. a nursing home97. Where does hospice care commonly occur?a. in a hospitalb. in a cancer center c. at homed. in a nursing home98. Despite the evidence of the advantages of the hospice approach, currently, only about of deaths in the United States involve a hospice program.a. 10%b. 20%c. 30%d. 40%99. Even in early childhood, most children understand that death is, however, for most children it is not until middle childhood that they realize that death is.a. discussable, avoidable b. avoidable, discussable c. inevitable, permanent d. permanent, inevitable100. Anxiety about one?s death is highest at.a. emerging adulthood b. young adulthoodc. middle adulthood d. late adulthood

 

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