Question;Abnormal;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed;answer sheet);1)In the United States,the;standard for defining types of mental disordersiscontained in;the;A)World Health Organization's classification;code.;B)American Psychological Association's bylaws.;C)Diagnostic and Statistical;Manual of Mental Disorders.;D)American Psychiatric Association's;bylaws.;2)The Solarists are a cult whose members believe that;they control the movements of the sun with special hand gestures.What;would the DSM-IV say about this group?;A)The group suffers from Shared Delusion Psychosis.;B)While some of this group'sindividualmembers may meet criteria for a DSM-IV diagnosis,the DSM-IV does not diagnose groups.;C)Becauseagroup of persons share a belief,however;strange,the group mustbe considered;emotionally healthy.;D)The groupis diagnosable because they are a cult.;3)What is Galen credited with?;A)performing the firsthuman autopsies;B)providingthe first;biological explanation for mental disorders;C)demonstrating that the doctrine of the four humors was flawed;D)recognizing that psychological disorders could have both biological and;psychological causes;4)Which statement about treatment of abnormal behavior;in the Middle Ages is accurate?;A)Islamic formsof treatment were more humane than European;approaches.;B)Although the Hippocratic tradition was continued in;most of Europe,Islamic countries emphasized demonology.;C)Scientific reasoning and humane treatments were valuedin both;European and Islamic societies.;D)The Chinese emphasized;prayer,the Europeans emphasized exercise,and the;Islamic peoples emphasized balancing the four bodily humors.;5)The approaches to treatment of the mentally ill during;the Middle Ages in Europe are best characterized as;A)scientific.;B)humane.;C)medical.;D)superstitious.;6) Which of the following occurred in the late;twentieth century?;A)the inpatient mentally ill population;doubled;B)a movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community;C)the establishment oflarge;inpatient facilities for the mentallyill;D)dramatic increases in the cost of caring for;the mentally ill;7)The studyof hypnosis andits relationship to;hysteria was the starting pointfor;A)narrative therapy.;B)psychoanalysis.;C)the medical model.;D)the mental hygiene movement.;8)Behaviorism was;A)a spin-off theory that elaborated;on the psychoanalytic viewpoint.;B)a reaction to the lack of moral and spiritual factors;in most theories at the time.;C)away todiagnose;patients without any'real'psychological;evidence.;D)areactionto what the behavioristsperceived asa lack of scientificrigor in psychoanalysis.;9)One strength of case studies is;A)theycan help;prove causal relationships between variables.;B)they donot involve bias.;C)they can generate hypotheses.;D)they are usually highlyaccurate.;10)In a study of the effects of ice cream on mood,the;mood afterice cream exposurecan be described as what?;A)aconfounding variable;B)theindependent variable;C)thedependentvariable;D)acorrelational variable;11)Etiology is;A)apredisposition;towards developing a disorder.;B)acondition that makes it less likely a person will;experience the negativeconsequences of stress.;C)the causal pattern of a disorder.;D)a condition that tends to maintain maladaptive;behavior.;12)Ifhaving a gene for;Parkinson's Disease guarantees that Parkinson's Diseasewilldevelop,the;presence of the gene can be described as a;A)contributory cause.;B)sufficientcause.;C)risk factor.;D)necessary cause.;13)In thediathesis-stress model, a stressor;is;A)abiological vulnerability.;B)a necessary or contributory cause thatis;distal from the onset of symptoms.;C)a necessary or contributory cause that is proximal to the onsetof symptoms.;D)a distal, sufficientcause of amental disorder.;14)Dr.Simon,a psychiatrist,takes a;biopsychosocial viewpoint of psychopathology.Which of;the following treatmentsis he;most likely to suggest for Julia'scurrent;state of depression?;A)a combination of psychological therapy and antidepressant drugs;B)intense psychotherapy;C)family therapyanda changein her workenvironment;D)a prolongedvacation;15)Damage to the pituitary;would most likelylead to;A)a deficiencyofcatecholamines.;B)depression.;C)hormonal imbalance.;D)death.;16) When examining heredity, mental disorders are;almost always;A)caused by recessive genes.;B)caused by one particular gene.;e)caused by multiple genes.;D) not caused by genes.;17)Mental disorders are almost always influenced by;multiple genes.This means they are;A)chemical circuits.;B)probands.;e)polygenic.;D) easy to discover.;18) If trait is highly heritable, it would be expected;that;A)the concordance rate for dizygotic twins would be;close to 100.;B)the concordance rate for monozygotic twins would be greater than the;concordance rate for dizygotic twins.;e)the concordance rate for dizygotic twins would be;greater than the concordance rate for monozygotic twins.;D)the concordance rate for dizygotic twins and;monozygotic twins would be comparable.;19)George and Logan are brothers.They;live in a small apartment in the city with some other relatives.Their;family is extremely poor. Their father is hardest on George,the;eldest,and sometimes physically abuses him. Which;environmentalfactorislikely to be more important in the later adjustment of;George and Logan?;A)Their poverty.;B)The fact that they live with other family members.;e)The physical abuse.;D) The overcrowding of their living situation.;20)Which of the following statements regarding divorce;and psychopathology is true?;A)Divorce is a major source of psychopathology.;B)No causal relationship has;been established between psychopathology and a parental divorce.;e)While a relationship between parental divorce and;psychopathology has been established;there is no data to suggest that;divorced persons experience anincreased rate of psychopathology.;D)The adverse effects of parental divorce are always;temporary.;21)Ed has suffered a head injury in a car accident.He is;referred to a psychologist to see what types of impairment now exist and to get;some suggestions for treatment.The best assessment strategy wou Id be;A)neuropsychological tests.;B)a PET scan.;C)an MRI.;0)a CAT scan.;22)In which of the following circumstances would a;clinician be most likely to use self-monitoring?;A)to find out what situations are likely to illicit problematic behavior;B)to evaluate the quality of;the social environment;C)when a client is unable to describe their presenting problem;0)when other forms of clinical observation have yielded;no evidence of abnormal behavior;23) Which of the following is NOT a reason for using;rating scales?;A)to increase reliability;B)todecreaseobjectivity;C)toprovide structure;0)to allow standardized comparisons to be made;24)There are two general categories of psychological;tests used in clinical practice.They are;A)neuropsychological tests and standardized;tests;B)intelligence tests and rating;scales;C)projective tests and sentence completion tests;0) intelligence;tests and personality tests;25) The use of lithium in the United States was;delayed due to;A)the stigma associated with mental illness.;B)its addiction potential.;C)the fact that it could not be patented.;0) a lack of evidence to demonstrate that it was;effective.;26) Which of the following is NOT an advantage of;behaviortherapy?;A)The principles employed have been scientifically validated.;B)It targets specific behaviors.;C)It works well when the problem is medical in nature.;D)It usually achieves results in a relatively short;period of time.;27) For which client is behavior therapy most likely;to be effective?;A)Wilson, whose complaint is premature ejaculation.;B)Tamara, who is trying to understand the origins of her;personality.;C)Angela, who has a variety of personality disorders.;D)Colin, who has been diagnosed withSchizophrenia.;28) Which of the following best illustrates the;analysis of resistance?;A)explaining that a dream about riding a wild horse in a;tunnel suggests strong sexual urges;B)reminding a client who has become insulting toward a;female therapist that she is, after all,a;helping professional and not the client's abusive mother;C)asking the client to say whatever comes into his/her;head,regardless of how silIy it sounds;D)noting that the client is able to talk freely about his mother but not;report anything about his father;29)Which of the following is the most significant;challenge to establishing thattherapy;is effective;A)Confidentiality rules allow little follow up with past;clients.;B)Placebo effects commonly occur.;C)Few psychotherapies are more effective than medical;treatments.;D)Many people improve without formal treatment.;30) Who is likely to have the most severe stress?;A)Josh,who has just been told;he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leavi ng him when he tells her;the news.;B)Lauren,who sees the clean-up of an accident and finds out;later it involved one of her friends.;C)Bill,who has a deadline the next day for an important;project.;D)Anne, who is planning her wedding.;31) The term "crisis" refers to;A)a period of especially acute stress.;B)any time when a stressful situation exceeds one's abilityto cope.;C)encountering a number of stressors;simultaneously.;D)any encounter thatrequires a readjustmentof self concept.;32) Which ofthefollowing is acriticismof thelife event scales?;A)No relationship has been found between;illnessand scores on these scales.;B)They do not recognize that multiple;life changes will produce;greater stress.;C)They do not recognize that joyful;events can be stressful.;D)Peoples' moods can have an impacton their ratings of stress.;33) Despite all the criticisms ofthe use;of life stress scales;A)today's approaches to assessing the effects of;life events are no better.;B)they are still the preferred method for measuring reactions to;specific environmental events.;C)the finding that life change produces stress has been supported by other;work.;D)their reliability and;validitywasnever challenged.;34) Activation of the sympathetic nervous;system;A)can have ill effects when it is sustained over time.;B)happens in response to exposure to viruses.;C)onIy happens if someone chooses"fight"rather than "flight".;D)helps a person relax.;35) Cortisol can be used to;A)decrease heart rate following sympathetic activation.;B)reduce inflammation.;C)stimulate the pituitary gland.;D)enhance immune responses.;36) B-cells;A)produce antibodies.;B)mature in the brain.;C)increase the a Ilostatic;load.;D)are a type of virus.;37)Research on stressful life events and the immune;response found;A)there was no association;betweenlevels of stress andimmune;functioning.;B)greater overall stress eventually;strengthened the immune system and slowed the transition from HIVpositivetoAIDS.;C)greater overall stress led tomore use ofsocialsupportand better;immune functioning.;D)greater overall stress was associated with more rapid transition from H IV positive;to AIDS.;38)Stress-inoculationtraining;A)involves learning new ways to thinkabout an anticipated threat and then applying these techniques to several different types of;threats.;B)is a form of cognitive preparationthat canbe used;to minimize the impact of any life challenge.;C)can be used to prepare for most any disaster.;D)prepares one to dealwith a;stressor by considering solutions to the problems;that arelikely to arise.;39) Individualswho suffer from phobias;A)are unlikely to have other psychological diagnoses.;B)suffer from uncued panic attacks.;C)avoid the feared stimulus.;D)are likelytobelieve;that theirfear is justified.;40)Because SSRls increase serotonin in the brain,what;other function do they provide which is thought to explainthe effectiveness ofthe SSRlsin treatingpanic disorder?;A)they decrease serotonergicactivity;B)they decrease noradrenergic activity;C)theyincrease noradrenergic activity;D)they increase serotonergic activity;41) Which brain structure isrecognizedas playing a;central role in panicattacks?;A)hippocampus;B)cerebellum;C)amygdala;D)locuscoeruleus;47)Which of the following must be present for at least 2;years in order for a diagnosis to be made?;A)bipolar II disorder;B)bipolar I disorder;C)major depressive disorder;0);dysthymia;48)A study of poor women inLondon;found that increased the;likelihood of developing depression after experiencing severe stress.;A)being in an intimate relationship;B)having religious faith;C)working outside of the home;0) having more than three children still at home.;49)This type of treatment emphasizes the depressed;person's need to become more active and engaged with their environment and;interpersonal relationships.;A)behavioral activation therapy;B)cognitive therapy;C)interpersonal therapy;0) bright I ight therapy;50) Recent research on relapse among bipolar patients;suggests that;A)stressful life events have very little influence.;B)personality styles interact with stress to increase the likelihood of;relapse.;C)relapse is most likely among those with;unrealistically positive attributional styles.;0)the more frequently a person has bipolar episodes, the;less likely stressful events are able to induce a relapse.;51) Which of the following would eliminate a potential;diagnosis of cyclothymia?;A)Between her more recent episodes, Carla functioned;quite well for 3 weeks.;B)Gil had been showing both hypomanic and depressed;symptoms for over three years.;C)Bob's most recent hypomanic episode lasted 3 days.;0)Carol was absolutely convinced that her mother wanted to kill her;although there was no evidence for this.;52)Which of the following is a hormonalabnormalityassociated;with both bipolar disorder andunipolardepression?;A)decreased cortisol levels;B)decreased thyroid hormone levels;C)increased cortisol levels;D)increased thyroid hormone levels;53) Behavior activation;treatment;A)focuses on implementing cognitive changes.;B)combines pharmacotherapy andbehavioral;therapy.;C)emphasizes activity and involvement in interpersonal relationships.;D)combines interpersonal therapy and;behavioral methodology.;54)Conditions involving physicalcomplaints or disabilities;occurring inthe absence of any physical pathology that could;accountfor themare;A)anxiety disorders.;B)somatoform disorders.;C)hypochondriacaldisorders.;D)dissociative disorders.;55)Ryan has diabetes but hasnotrouble;functioning.One day, his;wife;informs him that she is leaving him.;Ryan;suddenly develops terrible pain in his back,to the;point he is unable to getoutof bed.His wife agrees to stay for;a while"to take care of him.Ryan;probably has;A)body dysmorph ic disorder.;B)conversion disorder.;C)pain disorder associated a general;medical condition only.;D)pain disorder associated with psychological factors.;56) What do the somatoform and dissociative;disorders have in common?;A)Both have onsetduring;early childhood.;B)Both are characterized by physical complaints.;C)Both are more common inmen.;D)Both appear to be ways of alleviatinganxiety.;57) The inability to learn new information is known as;A)retrograde amnesia.;B)anterograde amnesia.;C)selective amnesia.;D)localized amnesia.;58)Studies of the brains ofindividuals;with DID;A)do not indicate any explanation for interpersonal;amnesia.;B)have provided no consistent findings.;C)fi nd no differencesin brainactivity;assoc iated with different identities.;D)support the assertion that DID is a real disorder.;59)When it comes to the effectiveness of treatment for;dissociative disorders, we know;A)that medications are worth less,but;that psychotherapy is quite effective.;B)that anti-depressant medications are most effective in;treating dissociative identity disorder.;C)that depersonalization is much more effectively;treated than amnesia.;D)very little.;60)Cindyis 5 ' 6"tall and weighs 92 pounds. She is very concerned about;her weight.However,at times she finds herself eating;large amounts of food several boxes of;cookies,gallons of ice cream,entire;cakes - all in an eve-;ning.Afterwards;she makes herself throw up.Cindy's;most likely diagnosisis;A)no disorder.;B)anorexia nervosa, restricting type.;C)anorexia nervosa;binge-eating/purging type;D)bulimia nervosa,purging;type.;61)Raquel has occasions when she eats enormous amounts of;food in a short time. Afterwards she will refuse to eat anything solid for a;couple of days.Her most likely diagnosis is;A)bulimia nervosa,nonpurging type.;B)anorexia nervosa,binge-purging;type.;C)anorexia nervosa, restricting type.;D)bulimia nervosa,purging;type.;62)Which of the followingis most;commonly found infamilies of girls withanorexia?;A)Children who reduce psychological;tension in the family by dominating their;parents.;B)Sibling rivalry that breaks out into physical and;verbal aggression.;C)Parents who are unconventional, dramatic,and;antisocial.;D)Parents who emphasizerules,control,and good physical appearance.;63)The most common quality of parents'interactions with;their daughters whohave eating disorders is;A)lackofdirection;and rules.;B)neglect.;C)control.;D)unconditionallove and acceptance.;64) Internalizing the"thin ideal" is strongly associated with;A)recovery from eating disorders.;B)body satisfaction.;C)negative affect.;D)attitudes about interpersonalrelationships.;65) After bariatric surgery;A)some patients do notlose any weight.;B)somepatients regain their weight.;C)most patients do not survive.;D)patientsstaynormal;weight the rest of their lives.;66)Individuals with personality disorders;A)have a strong sense of self.;B)are unable tolive up to societalexpectations.;C)reject societalexpectations.;D)comply with societal expectations.;67) Unlike disorders like depression and PTSD;A)those with personality disorders experience;considerable subjective distress.;B)multiple causal events can be identified when a;personality disorder has developed.;C)personality disorders are found on Axis III.;0) personality;disorders develop gradually.;68)The "clusters" of personality disorders;found in the DSM-IV-TR are grouped based on;A)similar etiologies.;B)symptom similarities.;C)level of dysfunction.;D)expected prognosis.;69)Which basic personality traits from the 5 factor model;seem most important in the development of h istrion ic personal ity disorder?;A)high extraversion and high neuroticism;B)high conscientiousness and low assertiveness;C)low openness to feelings and high fantasy proneness;D)high neuroticism and low agreeableness;70) personality;disorder is much more common in men than women and involves the exploitation of;others without remorse.;A)Borderl i ne;B)Histrionic;C)Paranoid;D)Antisocial;71)Which of the following is most typical of the;interpersonal attitudes and behaviors of someone with borderline personality;disorder?;A)excessive trust and dependence on others' opinions;B)cruel and callous exploitation of others for personal;gain;C)vacillation between overidealization and bitter disappointment;D)repeated manipulation of others to gain attention;72)Which of the following statements is true about;alcohol use?;A)Alcoholism is strongly associated with accidental;death,but not with violent acts.;B)Alcoholism is more common in women that in men.;C)Alcoholism increases the risk of suicide.;D)Alcoholism is extremely serious but rarely fatal.;73) Of the following, who is most likely to be an;alcoholic?;A)a twenty-five-year-old divorced man who completed one;year of junior college;B)a thirty-year-old college-educated man;C)a forty-two-year-old married woman who is a;high-school drop out;D)a fifty-seven-year-old woman with a doctorate in;anthropology;74) Which of the following is NOT a misconception;about alcohol?;A)Mixing different types of alcohol makes people more;drunk than the same;amount of a singe type.;B)Alcohol can interfere with sleep.;C)Alcohol is a stimulant.;D)Drinking coffee counteracts the effects of alcohol.;75) Problematic drinking behavior commonly develops;during;A)the transition to middle age.;B)a period of great success in an individual's life.;C)old age.;D)crisis periods in a marriage or other intimate personal relationship.;76) In contrast to other treatment programs,Alcoholics;Anonymous;A)uses primarily psychodynamic interventions, although;advocates of AA would disagree.;B)offers both group and one-on-one support.;C)is successful;but only with severe alcoholics who have;hit bottom.;D)has a low drop-out rate.;77)Julia has a shoe fetish, she is not able to enjoy sex;unless her partner is wearing her shoes. She needs to be touching the shoes in;order to achieve sexual gratification. She becomes aroused by the sight of her;own shoes. What is unique about Julia's case of shoe fetishism?;A)Partners are usually not involved.;B)Female fetishists are rare.;C)Most fetishes involve animate objects.;D)Sexual dysfunction usually is seen in the fetishist.;78) One's sense of maleness or femaleness is called;A)gender role.;B)gender identity.;C)gender preference.;0) gender orientation.;79)Martin has always felt he was really a girl. He;dressed in girl's clothing as a child and still wants to be a girl. He is sure;a mistake was made and that he is inhabiting the wrong sexed body. Martin's;symptoms suggest a diagnosis of;A)gender identity disorder.;B)transvestic fetishism.;C)gender dysphoria.;0) homosexuality.;80)Which of the following is an argument against the use;of surgical sex reassignment surgery for gender identity disorder?;A)Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been found to be;effective for most in alleviating gender dysphoria.;B)Surgery should not be used to treat a psychological disorder.;C)Gender identity disorder is not a lifelong disorder;and later regret is likely.;0) Most of those who have such surgeries;are not happy with the outcome.;81) Dyspareunia;A)is a disorder that involves involuntary spasms of the;muscles of the vagina,preventing intercourse.;B)is a disorder of inability to achieve orgasm.;C)is a disorder involving genital pain associated with;intercourse.;0) is a disorder of inhibited sexual desire.;82)Neuroimaging studies of hallucinating patients suggest;that auditory hallucinations;A)activate the brain areas involved in speech comprehension.;B)may reflect a medical disorder in the brain.;C)are actually heard.;D)are usually drug induced.;83) The central feature of catatonic schizophrenia is;A)an extreme stressor precipitating the symptoms.;B)illogical or absurd delusions.;C)excited or stuporous motor symptoms.;D)blunted or inappropriate affect.;84)Ursula has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. If PET;scans were done to measure her brain's activity, which area would probably be;underactive?;A)the hypothalamus and pituitary;B)the frontal lobes;C)the deepest portions of the brain,the;medulla and reticular activating system;D)the visual cortex;85)People with schizophrenia often;show poor performance on tasks like the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task,which;is thought to indicate a dysfunction of the;A)frontal lobe.;B)parietal lobe.;C)temporal lobe.;D)occipital lobe.;86)The first-generation anti psychotics seem to work;because they block dopamine. This is supported by the new research findings;that;A)changes in symptoms occur without any side effects.;B)changes in symptoms begin to occur very quickly after starting the;medications,not weeks later as;previously thought.;C)changes in symptoms begin to occur weeks after;starting to take the medications, rather than immediately.;D)patients' report they feel better right away, although;there isn't any actual clinical change occurring.;87) What types of delusions are most commonly seen in;Alzheimer's Disease?;A)delusions of grandeur;B)delusions of bodily changes;C)delusions of persecution;D)delusions of a religious nature;88) Which of the following is a risk factor for;developing Alzheimer's Disease?;A)being a woman;B)having a family history of Parkinson's;Disease;C)being highly educated;D)living in a non-Western developed nation;89) Vascular dementia;A)affects more women than men.;B)is a result of many small strokes.;C)is what was once called amnestic infarct dementia.;D)responds to the same treatments as Alzheimer's;Disease.;90) The effects of head trauma on memory suggest that;A)rarely;are episodic memories affected by head trauma.;B)semantic memory is usually affected when an injuryis;severe enough to produce a loss of consciousness.;C)the process of memory consolidation can be interrupted.;D)short-term memory is not affected by physical trauma.;91)Before the accident,Bob was;unemployed and had few friends.Lionel, who suffered comparable head trauma,was a;successful businessman and had just married. Which of these men should have the;more favorable outcome and why?;A)Bob,because his lack of responsibilities will permit him;to focus on getting well.;B)Bob,because he will not be distracted by relationships.;C)Neither, because there is never a favorable outcome to;head trauma.;D)Lionel, because he is more likely to be motivated to recover.;92) What complicates the diagnosis of maladaptive;behavior in childhood?;A)Drugs are not effective in treating the disorders that;are most commonly seen in children.;B)Most psychological disorders in the young have an identifiable;biological and medical cause.;C)The dividing line between childhood and adolescence;has been arbitrarily drawn.;D)Behavior that is problematic for a child of one age can be normal behavior;for a child of a different age.;93)Currently,the cause of ADHD is believed to be;A)an allergic reaction to certain foods and food;additives.;B)a combination of family pathology and poor peer modeling.;C)excessive sugar in the diet.;D)both biological and psychological factors.;94)What is the relationship;between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder?;A)Children who develop conduct disorder almost never had;oppositional defiant disorder.;B)Every case of oppositional defiant disorder develops into;conduct disorder when the child goes into adolescence.;C)Before children develop oppositional defiant;disorder,they haveconduct disorderfirst.;D) Virtually all children who develop conduct disorder have oppositionaldefiant disorder first.;95) Childhood and adult depression differ in what way?;A)Adult depression does not remit without;pharmacological intervention.;B)Altered eating habits are not seen in childhood;depression.;C)Altered hormone levels are not seen in children.;D)Irritability is often seen as a;major symptom in childhood depression.;96) Studies of the effectiveness of antidepressant;medication with children have;A)a major drawback: children develop tolerance to the;drugs and become psychologically dependent on them.;B)shown that Prozac is extremely effective in producing;long-term symptomrelief.;C)prod uced inconsistent resu Its.;0)indicated that while these drugs have few side effects,neither;do they have any benefits.;97) "Efforts that are aimed at influencing the general;population"best describes;A)crisis interventions.;B)indicated interventions.;C)universaIinterventions.;0)selectiveinterventions.;98)A major difference between social-learning programs and;milieu therapy is that social-learning programs;A)are always provided inmentalhospitals.;B)expect;patients to care for one another.;C)require each patient to be involved in;groups that"govern"the ward.;D)target specificbehaviorsfor reinforcement.;99) What is one of the best predictors of future;violence?;A)familysupport;B)pasthistoryof violence;C)compliance;with treatment;D)employment history;100)The Durham Rule;A)established thatone was sane unless they did not know right from wrong.;B)focusedon the cause ofan unlawful act.;C)madethecriteria for establishing insanity more objective.;D)is often referred to as the"substantial;capacity test".
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