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Psychology Questions




Question;Multiple Choice Questions(Enter;your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1."Men;can't cook." Thisis;all that Jim heard for the week;leading upto his;first attempt at making Thanksgiving;dinner forhisfamily;despite the fact that he had plenty of experience cooking for these same;people. When he finally attempted to cook thedinner;he panicked,and;burnt the turkey. Such a result is a demonstration;of: (a);latent learn i ng;(b) a forgetting curve;(c);stereotype threat (d);performance dissociation 2.The;term is used to describe the;study of how we have come to have knowledge.;(a);nativism (b);rationalism;(c);epistemology (d);none of the above 3.;Latent learning occurs when a behavioral change: (a);is observed at the time of initial learning;(b) is not;observed until some time has passed betweeninitial learning and;demonstration of that learning (c);is never observed (d);none ofthe above 4.;In the past,the term "learning;has been usedin;reference to: (a) conditioning and reinforcement tasks;(b) verbal recall tasks (c);the conscious recollection ofpast;experiences;(d) material presented for study on one occasion;5.;In the past,the term"memory;has been used in reference;to: (a);conditioning and reinforcement tasks;(b);skills requiring repeated trials foracquisition;(c) the;conscious recollection to past experiences;(d) none of the above 6.;Changes due to maturation are;excluded from the definition of learning;because: (a);they may arise from innate forces (b);they mayinvolve neural growth that occurs at its own;rate;(c);all of the above (d);none of the above 7.;Schmidt and Bork argue that learning and memory (a);are entirely separate from one another and cannot be studied together;(b) measure the same thing (c);cannot be studied because they cannot be observed (d) should be;studied together,as one's degree of;memory depends on one's levelof learning 8.When;one learns very quickly at the start of a training period;but the amount of learning slows down during;later trials,what type of learning;curve is produced? (a);an "S"shaped curve (b);a positively accelerated curve;(c) a power curve (d) a negatively;accelerated curve 9.The;ratsin Dr. Smith's;experiment on maze running took a few trials beforethey;started to;showany learning ability, although this"slow;early period was followed by a dramatically quick improvement in;performance,followed by a slowi ng down of learn i ng.;Th is data pattern suggests wh ich of the following types of learning curves? (a) an"S"shaped curve (b);a positively accelerated curve;(c) a power curve (d);a negatively accelerated curve 10.Dr.;Woods is conducting basic;research on the different types of sensory neurons that carry input to spinal;neurons. Her research on these neurons will most likely lead to an increased;understanding of the biological;nature of: (a) habituation;(b) sensitization (c);orienting responses (d);response generalization;11.In;describing the nature of the relationship between habituation and;sensitization, Dual- Process theory argues that: (a);habituation plays a more dominant role in learning than sensitization (b) habituation;may be a more dominant process in some learning situations, but sensitization;may be more dominant in others (c);sensitization plays a more dominant role in learning than habituation (d);habituation and sensitization are always;equally balanced in any learning envi ron ment. 12.;Gibson & Walk's classic perceptual learning experiment found that: (a);infants exposed to English phonemes demonstrate language skills earlier than;Hindi infants (b);preexposure to stimuli inhibits later learning;(c) preexposure;to stimuli facilitates later learning(d);the more one knows about a learning environment, the less one can learn in the;future 13.As;a result of his past experiences with police,whenever;Pat hears a police siren, he expects that he will soon be arrested. This type;of a reaction arises from which model of habituation? (a);behavioral;(b) non-learning;(c) cogn;itive (d);physiological 14.Aplysia;have been used to study the physiological properties of learning because: (a);they only have one neuron, which makes it easy to see and study;(b) they;only have a few neurons, which are relatively large in size(c);they have the same number of neurons as humans, so generalizations can be made;from Aplysia to humans (d);none of the above 15.An;Aplysia's siphon, when stimulated by touch, withdraws into its body. Repeated;tactile stimulation;produces: (a);sensitization;(b) habituation;(c);effector fatigue (d);response generalization;16.Studying;theinteractionbetween;neuronsin;Aplysia has led to the conclusion that habituation;occurs: (a);within sensory neurons;(b) within motor neurons (c) at synapses;between neurons;(d) within neuronal receptors 17.In;a classical conditioning;experiment,an;experimenter declares a flash of light to;be the CS,an;electric shock as the US,and a;fear reaction as the UR(as well;as,eventually,the;CR). The acquisition phase of this experiment would involve presenting: (a);the shock by itself;(b) the light byitself (c) the light;with the shock;(d) none of the above 18.Using;the situation described above in question #17, an unpaired control condition;would involve: (a);havi ng the I ight presented after the shock (b);always;presenting the light and shock separate from each other;(c) presenting the light and shock at the same time (d);presenting the light byitself 19.Using;the situation described;above in question #17,a truly random control;condition would;involve: (a);having the light presented after the shock (b);always presenting the light and shock in distant temporal orders (c);presenting;the light and shock in;an completely non-correlated manner;(d) presenting the light byitself 2l.After using;classical conditioning to train a child to;stand whenever a teacher calls their name,the;child begins to stand whenever any adults;refer to them. What has occurred? (a);generalization (b);spontaneous recovery;(c) extinction (d);discrimination 22.A;dog is trained to salivate in the presence of a blue light, but not in the;presence of a green light.What;has occurred? (a);generalization (b);spontaneous recovery;(c) extinction (d);discrimination 24.;Once extinction has occurred, previously-learned Pavlovian associations can: (a);never be recovered (b);only be recovered if the es and US are presented in close temporal order;(c);be recovered by re-exposure to the es alone (0);only De recovered If the US is presented 25.;pairings are effective in producing a es that will elicit conditioned;responses. (a);simuItaneous;(b) backward (c);forward;(d);all of the above lead to equally strong eRs 26.;Skinner, concerning reinforcement;made the argument that reinforcers: (a);only have their reinforcing qualities in their originally-used context;(b) lead to satisfaction (c);increase;the frequency of the operant response;(d) possess transsituationality 27.;A reinforcer: (a);possesses;transsituationality(b);does not always lead to satisfaction (c);decreases the frequency of the operant response (d);only hasits reinforcing qualitiesin;its originally-used context 28.James;has anintense, physiological desire for a;hamburger. Which of the following approaches could offer the best explanation;for the effect that a hamburger would have on James at this;moment? (a);incentive motivation;(b)reinforcer;priming (c);the Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction3l.Theidea;that reinforcers can be behaviors,and not;stimuli, is central to which reinforcement approach? (a);incentive motivation;(b) brain stimulation (c);the;Premack Principie;(d) drive reduction 32.James;loves candy and hates vegetables. However, his father wants to make sure that;James eats his vegetables, since they're good for him. To ensure vegetable;consumption, James is only allowed to have candy after he has eaten his;vegetables. This situation illustrates the application of: (a);intrinsic motivation;(b) reinforcer priming (c);the;Premack Principle;(d) drive reduction 33.The;idea that reinforcers allow previously-established neural connections to become;stronger is an attempt to connect the concept of reinforcement to: (a);incentive motivation;(b) memory;consolidation;(c) biofeedback (d);drive reduction 37.Which;of the following can be found within the context of Two-Process theory? (a);escape;learning;(b) helplessness;(c) punishment (d);all of the above 38.Eric;is trying to teach a pigeon to;peck at a lighted pad in order to avoid receiving a shock whilein;a operant learning chamber, but is finding that the pigeon;is having a difficult time;learning this association. This;problem is expected, according to which theory of avoidance learning? (a);cognitive (b);approach-avoidance;(c)functional;(d);learned;helplessness39.Samantha;has decided to change her fear of multiple choice;exams by altering her expectancies of what will;happen to her when she takes such a test.Such;an occurrence is a critical element of: (a);active avoidance;(b) two-process theory;(c) escape learning (d) a cognitive;approach to avoidance 40.;An approach-avoidance conflictinvolves;(a);having an approach tendency that is stronger than an avoidance tendency;(b) having an approach tendency that is weaker than an avoidance tendency;(c) having;an approach tendency that is equal to an avoidance tendency(d);not knowing if one should escape or avoid a stimulus 41.;Which of the following is characteristic of an avoidance coping;style? (a);selective attention;(b) intrusion (c) blunting (d);sensitization 42.As;a result of taking this test today, you are having;a difficult time recalling the material you studied yesterday, for a test in;tomorrow's calculus class.The;memory deficit described here illustrates: (a);retroactive interference;(b) proactive interference;(c) anchoring (d);remote associations 43.The;stimulus-response nature of learning can be seen;most directlyin which of the following memory tasks? (a);the serial position effect;(b) proactive interference;(c) anchoring (d);paired;associate learning45.A;group of children are presented with a list;of 20 words that they are told to remember. upon engaging In a free-recall task;after the list is presented,which of;the following children is likely;to recall the most words? (a) Joe,a lO-year-old boy;(b) Toni,an 8-yearold girl;(c) Susan,a 5-year-old girl;(d) Bob, a 5-year-old boy 46.Which;of the following groups of words has the highest;chance of being recalled perfectly? (a);cat,automobile, phone,I;ight,word;(b);garbage, wood,television;basket,carpet;(c) apple,orange, banana;pear, watermelon;(d) all have equal chances of being recalled 49.;Mary's knowledge of how to drive a caris;most likely originating from her: (a);procedural;memory;(b) explicit memory (c);episod ic memory;(d) semantic memory 5l.The;contamination of an implicit memory test with explicit;retrieval can be reduced by: (a);making sure subjects understand theirimplicit;memory instructions;(b) using subliminal presentations (c);using;amnesia patients as subjects(d);using individuals below the age of 18 in experiments 52.Which;of the following can be taken as evidence thatimplicit;memories arise from a different memory system than explicit;memories? (a);performance on implicit and explicit tests are positively correlated (b);individual;differences seem to affect explicit, but not implicit, abilities(c);experimental treatments tend to have equal effects on implicit and explicit;memory (d);all of the above 53.;Episodic and semantic LTM;have been suggested to be elements within: (a);declarative memory(b);non-declarative memory;(c) working memory (d);implicit memory 57.As;statedin your text,animal;research shows that animals possess which of the following human-like skills?;(Box 8.1) (a);STM (b);control processes;(c) LTM (d);A and B only 59.;Which of the following is NOT a component of;Working Memory? (a);phonological loop;(b) central executive (c);visuospatial sketchpad;(d) sensory;memory60.Joe;is having a hard time taking;notes in Professor Jones's class;because he can't repeat;the professor's words fast enough to hold them in his;mind and write them down. Joe's memory;difficulty is most likely stemming from a difficulty;within which;working memory component? (a);phonological loop;(b) central executive (c);visuospatial sketchpad;(d) sensory memory 61.Mary;is at a party,talking;to Tom.However, in the middle of her conversation;she hears her namementioned;across the room,and;almostimmediately turns her attention to the place;in the room from where she believes she heard her name. The element of Working;Memory most responsible for this shifting of;attention is most likely the: (a);phonological loop;(b) central;executive(c);visuospatial sketchpad;(d) sensory memory 63.Mary;suffered a stroke, the result of whichdamaged;the Episodic Buffer of her Working Memory. As a;result, Mary will likely have difficulty when she: (a);tries to connect the contents of Working Memory to Sensory Memory (b);attempts;to retrieve data from Long Term Memory to use in Working Memory;(c) retain visual images (d);allocate her attentional skills across a variety of tasks 64.At;the start of his gO-minute lecture on child;development, Professor Mentyl shows his class a 10 minute home video of his own;young children playing with their pet dog. When students later take an exam on;this lecture, Professor Mentyl finds that the students didn't remember the;details of the critical child development theories that were the focus of the;above lecture. This effect has come to be known as: (a);the spacing effect (b);the;seductive detail effect;(c) the generation effect (d);verbal overshadowing 67.Mary;finished studying;for her physics exam at lOpm last night.Upon;returning to the library;to continue studying this morning, Mary;found it difficult to focus on the task at hand. This is illustrative of which;explanation of the spacing effect? (a);encoding variability;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention;deficit (d);anterograde amnesia 68.John;is studying for his psychology exam on 4 successive nights;and each night he studies in a different location, at a;different time of day, and comes up with;different examples of the theories he is trying to learn. This is illustrative;of which explanation of the spacing effect? (a) encod i;ng variabi I ity;(b) retrograde amnesia;(c) attention deficit (d);anterograde amnesia 70.Which;of the following scenarios is most likely to produce the best retention of;studied material, according to the optimal spacing;theory? (a);spacing2study;periods1day apart from each other, followed by a;test3days later (b);spacing2study;periods1day apart from each other, followed by a;test4days later (c) spacing2study periods2days apart from;each other, followed by a test10days later(d);spacing2study;periods4days;apart from each other,followed by a test5;dayslater 7l.The;generation effect gets its name from: (a);comparing performances on a memory test between groups from older and younger;generations (b);forcing an experimenter to generate;stimuli that a subject must attend to;(c) forcing;a subject to generate their own stimuli in a memory experiment;(d) none of the above 72.An;experimenter presents a;subject with the words CAR and;CLOUD. If this was an experiment studying the generation effect, the subject's;task would involve: (a);repeati ng the words CAR and CLOU D over and over (b);counting the number of letters in the words CAR and CLOUD (c);Using;the letters in the words CAR and CLOUD to form a new word;(d) none of the above 74.To;have the best chance of retrieving information during an exam, students should;(a);study the examples their teachers used in class;(b) only study in a happy mood (c);create;their own examples related to material that was presented in class(d);study in a room that is different from the room where they'll;take their exam 76.Since;John drank 10 cups of coffee while studying for his chemistry exam, he drinks;10 more while taking the test in order reinstate the physiological state he was;under while studying. This behavior suggests that John is a firm bel iever in: (a);d isti nctiveness (b);encoding specificity;(c) hypermnesia (d);state;dependent learning77.Whenever;Julie is sad, she can only remember sad events. In these cases, Julie's memory;ability seems to be based on: (a);dependent memory;(b) encoding specificity;(c) hypermnesia (d);mood-congruent;memory 79.While;working at her desk, Mary remembers that it is her turn to cook dinner tonight.;She then writes a quick reminder;note to herself to stop by the supermarket on the way home to pick up some;groceries to use for dinner.;Mary's actions;here are illustrative of: (a);encoding specificity;(b) hypermnesia (c);spreading of activation;(d) prospective;memory80.;Which of the followingis NOT an;example of prospective memory? (a);rememberi ng that one has a dentist appoi ntment next week (b);remembering that one has to pick up one's;child from football practice tomorrow (c);remembering;that you were sexually abused15years ago, as a child;(d) none of the above Bl.The existence;of partial retrievalis supported by effects. (a);tip-of-the-tongue and;feeling-of-knowing;(b) tip-of-the-tongue and prospective memory;(c) feeling-of-knowing and prospective memory (d);tip-of-the-tongue, feeling-of-knowing;and prospective memory 83.The;beliefs and self-knowledge that individuals possess about what they've;learned are central to: (a);metacogn;ition(b);knowledge of results (c);practice-i ndependent learn i ng;(d) implicit learning;85.;The lO-year rule applies to the amount of time;it takes to: (a);become;an expert in a given field;(b) extinct conditioned responses (c);develop implicit learning abilities;(d) become a Psychologist 87.;Implicit learning ability: (a);can only be used in the context it wasinitially;acquired;(b) tends to be impaired in amnesiacs (c);can;be transferred to new contexts(d);only involves motor skill ability 88.Joe;a normal high;school sophomore, has just started to learn how to play chess, although his;goal is to become a world-class chess expert.Joe;will most likely be able to attain this goal: (a);a;few years after he graduates from college;(b) immediately after graduating high school (c);before he graduates from high school if he practices hard enough (d);none of the above-- either you are born with expert skills or you're not 89.Huntington's;and Alzheimer's patients show patterns of ability across different implicit tests of their;knowledge. (a);identical;(b) similar;(c)different(d);none of the above-- these individuals lose their implicit processing skills 90.;Which of the following notions concerning expertise tends to be disputed? (a);it is afunction;of practice;(b) it;is inherited (c);proper motivation to become am expertis;essential (d);experts need to persevere in learning their specific skill 91.;Developmental disabilities;can be caused by: (a);birth defects;(b) head injury;(c) malnutrition (d) all of the;above 92.;The cognitive impairment of Down Syndromeis;the result of: (a);lack of formal education;(b) a genetic defect (c);head injury (d);malnutrition 93.Barry;has three copies of chromosome 21.Which of;the following tasks will he most likely have d ifficu Ity with?;(a);reciting his telephone number (b);tracing;the correct path though a maze(c);stating the names of his brothers and sisters;(d) stating the names of his cat;and dog 94.Julie;a ten year old,hasimpairment;with visual-spatial tasks,but;performs quite well with verbal tasks.Her;diagnosis is most likely: (a);Dyslexia (b);Down Syndrome;(c) Williams;Syndrome;(d) all of the above 96.;Learning disabled children tend to exhibit problems with;(a);memory encoding;(b) memory retrieval;(c) attention (d);all;of the above97.While;sitting in class, Jamie,a;lO-year-old girl with a learning;disability, is very distracted;fidgeting in her chair and not focusing on the lesson being;delivered by the teacher. Which approach is most consistent with Jamie's behavior?;(a);the comprehension deficit hypothesis;(b) the;attentional deficit hypothesis(c);disconnection syndrome (d);classical conditioning 99.Dual-task;experiments using learning-disabled individuals;as participants have suggested that the problems experienced by people with;learning disabilities;is due to a problem with: (a);attention;(b) retrieval (c);working;memory;(d)LTM;="msonormal">


Paper#59889 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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