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PSY 280 Final Exam MCQs




Question;PSY 280 Marriage and Family Text: Marriages and Families: Making Choices in a Diverse Society 10th Edition, 2009 ISBN: 13: 978-0-495-39092-3 Authors: Mary Ann Lamanna and Agnes Riedmann Publisher: Thomson Learning, Inc.;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1. In 2005, the average size of a u.s. household was 4.14 people. 3.14 people. 2.57 people. 1.1 people. According to the text, marriage remains an almost experience, 91 percent of adults have been married or plan to marry. universal surreal e. rare d. unreal 3. Over the past four decades, fertility in the United States has stayed about the same. increased dramatically. e. declined. d. fluctuated substantially. In 1957, the total fertility rate was about 3.6 children per woman. For the last decade and a half, it has been child/children per woman. o, Ie,,,, than one b. one e. around two d. about three 5. The text reports that rates of childlessness seem to be increasing. leveling off. e. decreasing. d. fluctuating. 6. The text reports that divorce rates continue to increase annually. are much lower today than in the past. e. have stabilized, although they remain at high levels. d. are skyrocketing.;7. The divorce rate has been in decline for more than two decades. continues to increase over time. will probably never level off. will always remain at 50 percent of first marriages.;8. ______ Americans are most likely of all age groups to be living alone.;Teenaged College-age Middle-age Older What is the primary reason, according to the text, that the transition to adulthood has become elongated? it takes longer to earn enough to support a family more children are deciding not to attend college freeloading is easier young adults are marrying later The stage of the family life cycle comes to an end with the arrival of the first child. singlehood newly established couple families with adolescents aging families 11. What marks the end of the family life cycle, according to the text? divorce the death of the last person with the family surname the death of a spouse the children leaving home;The view that the family is an enduring social institution because of the important tasks it performs for society - reproduction, emotional support, socialization of children - is the perspective. structure-functional family relationships interactionist family systems According to psychologist Jeffrey Arnett, which of the following criteria are NOT among those necessary for adulthood? accept responsibility for yourself make independent decisions become financially independent get married The structure-functional theoretical perspective views the family as performing at least three important functions. Which of the following is NOT one of these? raising children responsibly providing economic support mate selection providing emotional security Suppose that a law states: "The husband is the head of the household. As such, he will establish a place and a mode of living and the wife must conform thereto. The husband must support his wife and minor children out of his labor. The wife must assist him insofar as she is able.This hypothetical law is consistent with the focus of which theoretical perspective? conflict structure-functional interactionist family ecology The perspective, which calls attention to cross-cultural variation in family structure, points out that all societies look to families to accomplish some roles/tasks, even though they may differ from one another regarding how it is arranged for these tasks to be accomplished. feminist family systems exchange structure-functional Advocates supporting the perspective frequently argue that the nuclear family is the norm, while their opponents refuse to view the nuclear family as normal, natural, or best. feminist exchange structure-functional conflict Being at war does affect American families, since of U.s. service members are married, and almost have children. ten percent, twenty percent one quarter, half twenty percent, forty percent half, three quarters Almost percent of families in the United States were classified as"working poor" in 2004 (at least one wage earner, but below poverty-level incomes). 5 7 10 12 rne divorce rate tor military marriages, as compared to civilian couples, is ____ (personnel) and (officers). higher, the same similar, higher higher, similar similar, lower Economists are divided as to whether the increasing of the economy - more outsourcing of jobs to other countries and the replacement of manufacturing by service jobs - is rendering the economic foundation of the American family more precarious or is opening new opportunities. industrialization naturalization globalization elevation;The income of the bottom 60 percent of Americans has since 1979. skyrocketed steadily climbed dropped barely budged The text points out that white-collar jobs, especially those in technological and engineering fields and some financial services, are moving overseas to which two countries? India and China Spain and Italy Kenya and South Africa England and Germany 24. One in children in the United States is in poverty. 10 8 6 2 25. According to the text, race is a social construction. biological category. genetic grouping. separate category distinguished by certain biological markers. The 2000 census employed five major racial categories. Which of the following is NOT one of these? white Black or African American Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander multicultural;27. One cultural message that is sent about being a involves men being expected to distance themselves from anything considered feminine. sensitive father good worker "real man" stud 28. The cultural expectations for men include all but which of the following? occupational and financial success confidence and self-reliance nurturing and tenderness responsible for military defense An alternate for men emphasizes adventure, sometimes coupled with violence and/or the need to outwit, humiliate, and defeat other men in barroom brawls, contact sports, and war. cultural message gender identity feminine script gender role The pivotal expectation in for a woman requires her to offer emotional support. occupational roles femininities the parenthood role being a lover A feminine expectation that has emerged over the past twenty years is that of the II woman": independent, ambitious, and self-confident. bureaucratic ideal professional powerful but lonely;According to the text, more and more women are entering nontraditional occupations such as the military. teaching. homemaking. nursing. One alternate stereotypical white working-class male response to economic disadvantage and social change involves all but which of the following? a denigrating and hostile critique of blacks and other minorities the "hypermasculinity [of] shop floors, motorcycle clubs, and urban gangs" a renewed sense of family responsibility criticalness towards women Traditionally, the ideal woman has several stereotypical traits. Which of the following is NOT one of these? physically attractive not too competitive a good listener career ambition During the 1980s, a new cultural message about men emerged. According to this message, the II II male or "new man" is emotionally sensitive and expressive, valuing tenderness and equal relationships with women. girly feminine liberated emasculated The cultural script for the "strong black woman" emphasized certain qualities. Which of the following is NOT one of these? submissiveness independence assertiveness employed;From a(n) perspective, we consider that humans are designed for the purpose of transmitting their genes to the next generation. interactionist social conflict structure functional biosocial According to the perspective, men are inclined toward casual sex with many partners, whereas women are inclined to be selective and monogamous. structure-functional biosocial exchange interactionist From the exchange perspective, what a person expects out of a relationship is referred to as relative orientation. perspective. comparison level. satisfaction level. In the model of sexual satisfaction, satisfaction is seen to depend on the costs and rewards of a sexual relationship, as well as the participant's comparison level. interactionist interpersonal exchange social conflict developmental The interactionist perspective emphasizes the interpersonal negotiation of relationships in the context of sexual scripts. exchange components. comparison level. gender roles.;According to the theoretical perspective on human sexuality, women and men are seen as being influenced by cultural messages about how we are to be sexual. developmental interpersonal exchange interactionist structure functional In a(n) society, sex is defined as a physiological activity, valued for its procreative potential. patriarchal matriarchal egalitarian culturally diverse Within the scope of sexuality, orgasm is important for women as well as for men, and sex is not only, or even primarily, for reproduction, but is an important means of enhancing human intimacy. patriarchal instrumental expressive postmodern The proportion of divorced and widowed is lower among an indication of their strong cultural commitment to lifelong marriage, and their average lower age. Hispanics non-Hispanics whites African Americans Asian Americans In 1970,36 percent of women age twenty through twenty-four were never married, by 2005, that figure had risen to percent. 40 50 65 75;Permanence and sexual exclusivity are two every important elements of the marriage;a. dialogue. b. premise. c. contract. d. dynamic. Bill and JoAnn have recently married and have made a commitment to each other that they will keep each other as the most important people in their lives, and stay together as long as they live. Bill and JoAnn's joint commitment reflects the expectations of self-disclosure. permanence. emotional devotion. fidelity. Zack and Mikayla have recently married and have agreed that they will only have sexual relations with each other. This agreement reflects the expectations of the love relationship. primariness. sexual exclusivity. self-disclosure. Social scientists have defined the family as a -a fundamental component of social organization. social institution individual contract familial norm unit of population 51. (having more than one spouse) is culturally accepted in many parts of the world. Heterogamy Homogamy Polyandry Polygamy;52. What is the key function of marriage for most Americans? a practical, economic institution love and ongoing emotional support childbearing and rearing merging two families;Marria;With a group of other married couples, Maureen and Jim regularly exchange partners in order to engage in purely recreational sex. This reflects a practice known as "musical beds:' "marriage alternatives:' "fun time:' "swinging:' 54. Singles are less likely to return home when _ their parents have recently moved their parents have been divorced or remarried they have a child out of wedlock they struggle to find a job 55. The text points out that, in American society, communes have existed throughout its history. have never appeared. are a very recent development. began to develop in the 1960s. 56. A is a situation or place characterized by group living. home retirement community commune gathering Communal living may be one way to deal with problems associated with all EXCEPT which of the following? aging unattached singlehood single parenthood sexual permissiveness;58. Communal living is designed to provide _ financial stability social support and companionship romantic involvement sexual expressiveness 9. Today, approximately million U.s. heterosexual couples cohabit. 1.5 2.5 3.5 5.5 (as per book page 199 answer should be 6.8.. so I ahve choosen the nearest to it)About percent of u.s. women age 15 through 45 are currently cohabiting with a male partner. 1 3 5 9 According to the text, percent of women aged 15-45 have cohabited at some time in their lives. about 5 close to 10 just over 25 just over 50 The text reports that approximately percent of cohabitants are age 65 and over - a fifty percent increase since 1990. 5 15 25 over 30;63. In much of the world, particularly in parts of Asia and Africa that are less Westernized, parents have traditionally their children's marriages. arranged interfered in paid for organized Today, in countries where arranged marriages used to be the norm, it is more common for the children to marry only when they themselves accept their parents' choice. Unions like these are called _ agreed-upon marriages conceded marriages reluctant marriages assisted marriages In terms of mate selection patterns, the United States is an example of what cross-cultural researchers call a culture. nationalized marriage cross-national collectivist free-choice Arranged marriage developed in societies based on strong extended family ties. capitalist collectivist primitive postindustrial With global westernization, are replacing arranged marriage as the preferred way to select mates throughout the world. non-traditional unions participant-run marriages free choice marriages individual unions;In studying shared parenting, Diane Ehrensaft identified three factors that affected both a father's dedication to everyday parenting and the mother's commitment, too. Which of the following is NOT one of these? Many men and their wives were strongly influenced by the feminist movement or other 1960s ideologies that kept them going during the more difficult times. Many of the mothers were intrinsically committed to elementary education. Many of the fathers were in occupations related to children, such as academic child psychology. Both parents tended to have good job security, so they could risk the displeasure of their supervisors in giving time to parenthood. The text refers to as the degree to which partners agree with and support each other as parents. partnering parenthood mutual support parenting parenting alliance allied parents In terms of children's behavior problems, aggression, lying, cheating, running away from home, disobeying at school, and delinquency are all examples of externalizing. internalizing. disorganization. anomie. In terms of children's behavior problems, withdrawal, depression, and anxiety are all examples of anomie. internalizing. externalizing. psychoses.;Researchers have consistently found a link between and externalizing and internalizing in children. age of child gender ethnicity marital conflict The correlation between interparental conflict and behavior problems in children held true regardless of whether the parents were married or divorced. black or white. overtly or covertly violent. conflictual with the children or not. The text points out that shared parenting is probably more satisfying for parents and effective for children when both parents use which parenting style? authoritarian laissez-faire authoritative egalitarian 80. Men with children work compared to childless men, on average. decreased hours increased hours less about the same The Census Bureau only considers those whose wives worked full time as ____ -' also called househusbands. stay-at-home-dads unemployed egalitarian slackers;According to the u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics from 2006, wives earn more than their husbands in percent of couples. 10 25 30 50 Brad and Janet have been married for 10 years. Janet is a prosecuting attorney. Brad stays home to care for the house and family. The text would identify Brad as a good provider. role-reversed father. poor provider. househusband. Today, the statistical norm among married couples is the marriage. dual-career male-as-sole-provider two-earner female-as-sole-provider One year into marriage, the average spouse says 'I love you,' hugs and kisses their partner, makes their partner laugh, and has sexual intercourse ____ as often as when they were newly wed. twice just about half one quarter In his most recent publications, Nick Stinnett has used the term "strong families,' by which he largely means attributive. cohesive. consensual. generalized. When Nick Stinnett made his observations offamily strengths, six qualities stood out. Which of the following is NOT one of these? appreciation for one another arrangement of personal schedules to be together a high degree of commitment an excess of consensual validation SOciologist/counselor Carlfred Broderick has listed certain important positive results of good listening. Which of the following is NOT one of these? The attitude of listening itself shows love, concern, and respect. Listening can reveal faults in the relationship. The avoidance of interrupting and criticism prevents the sending of negative messages. People discover how things actually look from a spouse's or partner's point of view. According to Shelly Gable's research the "correct" response by one partner to the other's having something positive happen is characterized by active enthusiasm. measured evaluation. sympathetic understanding. controlled argumentation. The text points out that it is only in the present situation, in which neither patriarchal nor egalitarian norms are firmly entrenched, that marital power is negotiated by individual couples and the power of husbands and wives may be a consequence of their resources. patriarchal matriarchal power non-specific transitional egalitarian Virtually all research indicates that women's satisfaction with is strongly associated with women's relationship happiness, marital commitment, and depression and with the risk of marital disruption. the fairness of their partners' contributions to household work their sexual fulfillment their career and outside pursuits relationships with in-laws;92. Since 1965, trends in average weekly housework hours for men and women show: men do more housework than women there has been a significant increase in men's share of the housework, although the amount oftime spent is still not equal nothing has changed since 1965 there is no significant trend Research on couples' -whether they pool their money and who controls pooled or separate money-is relatively recent. allocation systems financial marital status fund typing cash decisions A study of fifty-five instances of perinatal loss found that grief was still felt by some parents forty years later, whereas the majority reported _ occasional bouts of intense grief occasional mild grief slight depression no long-term grief According to the text, negotiating family boundary changes is particularly difficult when the loss of a family member is abrupt. certain. ambiguous. unexpected. Ambiguous loss may occur when a family member is physically present but psychologically absent, as in all BUT which of the following cases? alcoholic or mentally ill family members learning disabled children those suffering from Alzheimer's disease children with cognitive impairment or severe disabilities From the perspective, ambiguous loss is uniquely difficult to deal with because it creates boundary ambiguity in a family. conflict interactionist family development family systems Hetherington maintains that percent of those who obtain a divorce become "enhanced': 10 70 30 20 Which of the following is NOT one of sociologist Paul Bohannan's "stations" of divorce? emotional legal sexual psychic 100. David and Patricia have been married for ten years. They no longer reinforce, but rather undermine each other's self-esteem through endless large and small betrayals, they blame, rather than comfort each other. These conditions reflect the "station" of divorce. psychic emotional community legal


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