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psy19 exam 4

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Question.;Match the level of moral reasoning with its definition.;(Points: 3);Potential Matches;1: postconventional;2: conventional;3: preconventional;Answer;a concern with the maintenance of the existing rule structure and a respect for authority;an awareness of the relativism of values and a commitment to either a personal or a universal set of moral principles;concern with the external consequences of behavior and with the power of those who represent authority;Question 2.;2.;In order for later adolescents to be successful in achieving autonomy, ____.;(Points: 2);secure attachments must be dissolvedthey must feel that parents do not accept their need to have their opinions and viewsthey must sense that their parents are no longer committed to their well-beingthere must be a context of mutual caring, emotional support, and differentiation in the family;Question 3.;3.;Living arrangements for 18-24 year-olds changed from the 1960's to the present because fewer 18-24 year-olds ____.;(Points: 2);are married and living in their own households todayare living in their parents' households in todaywant to attend college todayexpected to marry after college in the 1960's than today;Question 4.;4.;What is the relationship between sexual orientation and gender identity?;(Points: 2);Gay men are androgynous.Lesbians are masculine.Heterosexual men are masculine.Sexual orientation does not predict gender identity.;Question 5.;5.;How do students typically change during the college years in their gender-role attitudes?;(Points: 2);They become more flexible.They become more traditional.They become increasingly confused about what is best for them.No changes are likely during this period.;Question 6.;6.;How does moral judgment change from early school age to later adolescence?;(Points: 2);more emphasis on rewards and punishmentsmore emphasis on approval from authority figuresmore emphasis on principles of social responsibilitymore emphasis on generative activities;Question 7.;7.;The college curriculum can help advance moral reasoning because students experience ____.;(Points: 2);information overloadfailuresupport for their beliefsdiffering points of view;Question 8.;8.;A;moral conflict which requires a choice between doing something helpful;for someone else or meeting one's own needs involves a ____.;(Points: 2);prohibitive moral judgmentpostconventional moral judgmentprosocial moral judgmentconventional moral judgment;Question 9.;9.;According to Carol Gilligan, women's reasoning about moral situations differs from that of men in which of the following ways?;(Points: 2);Women are more likely to emphasize justice and upholding the law.Men are more likely to emphasize the impact of a decision on friends and family.Women are more concerned about reward and punishment than men.Women are more sensitive than men to the interpersonal context and one's responsibility for others.;Question 10.;10.;In the Tiedeman model of career decision making, the last three phases involve ____.;(Points: 2);implementationplanningclarificationcounseling;Question 11.;11.;The;importance one gives to certain content areas of identity, and the;salience of some aspects of identity over others contributes to the;of identity.;(Points: 2);contentevaluationmoratoriumresolution;Question 12.;12.;Which of the following statements is most accurate about identity?;(Points: 2);The content of identity may change over the life course, but the evaluation component remains constant.The content of identity remains constant but the evaluation changes.Both content and evaluation of identity may change over the life course.Both content and evaluation of identity remain constant over the life course.;Question 13.;13.;In;James Marcia's model of identity status, ____ consists of a period of;role experimentation and active decision making among alternative;choices.;(Points: 2);crisiscommitmentsalienceexploration;Question 14.;14.;The identity status characterized by commitment without a period of questioning and exploration is ____.;(Points: 2);identity achievementmoratoriumnegative identityforeclosure;Question 15.;15.;Which;of the following identity statuses is characterized by a period of;questioning and crisis followed by the formation of occupational and;ideological commitments?;(Points: 2);identity achievementidentity foreclosuremoratoriumidentity confusion;Question 16.;16.;Many;young people come to college ready to engage in a period of questioning;and personal experimentation. They suspend the need to make;commitments. This is described as ____.;(Points: 2);negative identityandrogynypsychosocial moratoriumforeclosure;Question 17.;17.;The;ability to sustain loyalties freely pledged in spite of the inevitable;contradictions and confusions of value systems is referred to as ____.;(Points: 2);contaminationsacrificerepudiationfidelity;Question 18.;18.;Match the concepts to the best definition.;(Points: 3);Potential Matches;1: competence motivation;2: self-actualization;3: self-acceptance;Answer;A desire to make optimal use of one's potential.;Achieving a sense of trust in one's ideas and decisions.;Desire to achieve new levels of mastery in behaviors.;Question 19.;19.;How do life roles change in adulthood?;(Points: 2);Adulthood is the first time one experiences role conflict.Adulthood involves multiple roles that are increasingly complex.Kinship roles begin in adulthood.Adults experience role loss but not role gain.;Question 20.;20.;Which term refers to social consensus about the period of life when one should assume or leave certain roles?;(Points: 2);norm of reciprocitysocial clockhomogamyself disclosure;Question 21.;21.;What is an essential process that promotes growth in Carl Rogers' theory of personality development?;(Points: 2);conditional approvalreliance on the approval of othersexperiencing and accepting the authentic selfbeing conscientious;Question 22.;22.;In the mate selection process, role compatibility refers to ____.;(Points: 2);finding that the partners have mutually supportive career aspirationsa sense that the two partners approach a situation in ways that work well togethera sense that the partners have similar expectations for the roles of husband and wifethe peer group's acceptance of the couple;Question 23.;23.;Which of the following is NOT associated with high levels of satisfaction in marriage?;(Points: 2);frequent, pleasurable interactionhigh degree of disclosureagreeing not to have conflictshigh levels of disclosure reciprocity;Question 24.;24.;The;style of interaction in which the probability of a negative remark will;be followed by another negative remark as the conversation continues is;called ____.;(Points: 2);coercive escalationcontactful interactionconsensus seekingconventional interaction;Question 25.;25.;John and Mary are;arguing. Mary says ?John, it really bothers me when you are rude to my;mother.? John replies, ?Well, really, she has never liked me and she;usually insults me the first chance she gets. Should I just sit there;and take it? It may seem like I?m being rude but it?s not like she goes;out of her way to be nice to me either.? John is ____________.;(Points: 2);validating Mary?s concernsaccepting influence from Maryshowing contempt for Marybeing defensive;Question 26.;26.;Fred and Joan are;having an argument. Fred says ?Listen Joan, you are working way too;much. You leave before the kids are awake and come home too exhausted to;spend any quality time with me, or them?. Joan replies: ?I know what;you mean. This has been a really busy time at work and I can see it?s;influencing our family. I don?t know what I can do to change things;right now, but I do know this has been frustrating for you and the kids.;Joan is ______.;(Points: 2);validating Fred's concerns.being diplomatic when introducing a problem with Fredbeing defensivecounterattacking;Question 27.;27.;Which of the following is a key finding of Gottman?s research on the interactions of married couples?;(Points: 2);When couples in satisfied marriages argue there tends to be at least five positive statements to every one negative statement.When;couples in satisfied marriages argue there tends to be about an equal;number of positive to negative statements (e.g., there is one positive;statement for every one negative statement).When couples in satisfied marriages argue there tends to be no negative statements.Couples in satisfied marriages tend not to argue.;Question 28.;28.;Men who entered fatherhood at a later age (after 30) when compared to young and on-time fathers and were considered ____.;(Points: 2);less involved with their childrenmore critical of their childrenregretful about having remained childless for so longmore involved in parenthood;Question 29.;29.;If a couple had high levels of conflict before a baby's birth, what is likely to occur after the birth?;(Points: 2);The level of conflict is likely to decrease.The level of conflict is likely to increase.They are likely to get divorced after the baby's birth.They tend to go into marriage counseling.;Question 30.;30.;According to Sternberg, all types of love are a combination of three dimensions: intimacy, commitment, and ____.;(Points: 2);disclosurefascinationjealousypassion;Question 31.;31.;Which of the following best characterizes the core pathology of exclusivity in early adulthood?;(Points: 2);an unnatural aspect of intimate relationshipsa pre-requisite to the achievement of intimacyan unwillingness to seek out new people and experiencesan outcome of the career choice more than relationship choice;Question 32.;32.;Although;income, occupation, and education are important predictors of divorce;when you ask couples about the major cause for their divorce, they;frequently cite ____.;(Points: 2);alcoholismproblems in communicationinfidelityidentity confusion;Question 33.;33.;Match the following balancing work and family life terms with examples that illustrate these terms.;(Points: 3);Potential Matches;1: role overload;2: role conflict;3: spillover;Answer;As a nurse, Mike finds himself caring for people all day and worrying;about who is caring for his frail, elderly mother who is at home without;help.;Marilee was just ordered to work late in order to meet a deadline and;is frustrated because her son's first football game is tonight.;Micah just became a single parent and was named acting director of his;agency while still expected to fulfill the obligations associated with;the assistant director role.;Question 34.;34.;Which of the following reflects the substantive complexity of a job?;(Points: 2);exposure to physical and emotional hazardson-the-job trainingrepetitive technical skillsindependent judgment and decision making;Question 35.;35.;What role does conflict play in a vital marriage?;(Points: 2);The partners in a vital marriage do not experience conflict.The partners in a vital marriage can always resolve the conflict.Disagreements in a vital marriage are avoided at all costs.The partners in a vital marriage disagree, but positive statements outnumber negative statements in their interactions.;Question 36.;36.;During early and middle childhood, parents ____.;(Points: 2);act as educators and gatekeepersanticipate regression to earlier developmental stagescriticize work in order to manage the householdare not viewed as a resource to their children;Question 37.;37.;For most adults who become grandparents, grandchildren symbolize ____.;(Points: 2);the lost opportunities of their youththe continuity of their lives into the futurethe struggle for economic self-sufficiencya sense of industry;Question 38.;38.;The sense of responsibility to care for one's aging parents is called ____.;(Points: 2);social isolationfilial obligationstagnationguilt;Question 39.;39.;Who is more likely to provide care for an aging parent?;(Points: 2);a grandsona son who doesn't worka daughtera granddaughter;Question 40.;40.;Jackie;spent most of her time and energy shopping for various clothes and;decorations for her home. She had numerous parties in order to show off;her possessions and to increase her visibility in various social;circles. Which of the following best describes Jackie?;(Points: 2);depressednarcissisticgenerativecreative;Question 41.;41.;The willingness to abandon old forms or old patterns of doing things in favor of new ways to do things is referred to as ____.;(Points: 2);social integrationnarcissismstagnationcreativity;Question 42.;42.;Which of the following statements best describes the relationship of life goals and satisfaction in later adulthood?;(Points: 2);Older adults continue to set goals and evaluate their satisfaction level.Older adults stop setting goals as they near the end of their life.Older adults tend to set goals, but not assess their degree of satisfactionOlder adults evaluate the degree of life satisfaction without setting goals.;Question 43.;43.;One reason it is difficult to study the development of intelligence in adulthood is that ____.;(Points: 2);intelligence declines with ageadults do not participate in studies of intelligenceit is difficult to distinguish historical factors from developmental factorsmost changes are due to genetics;Question 44.;44.;is a complex network of information, concepts, and schemes related by associations, knowledge, and use.;(Points: 2);MetacognitionShort-term memoryFluid intelligenceLong-term memory;Question 45.;45.;According to your text, neurological loss associated with aging is most damaging to which type of intelligence?;(Points: 2);Fluid intelligenceCrystallized intelligenceMetacognitionBehavioral intelligence;Question 46.;46.;William;is faced with a dilemma about how to find a more efficient way to;manage his business. His secretary, who has been working for him for a;long time, is making many errors and missing days of work due to family;illness. He thinks he should fire her, but she knows a lot about his;business and has been a loyal employee. He is trying to find a solution;that combines logic, compassion, and practicality. What kind of;cognitive capacity does he need?;(Points: 2);post formal reasoningcrystallized intelligenceshort-term memoryconcrete operational thought;Question 47.;47.;Research on older widowed women found that the majority of widows show evidence of a high level of ____.;(Points: 2);chronic depressionlearned helplessnessself-sufficiencycrystallized intelligence;Question 48.;48.;Which of the following statements most accurately describes widowers?;(Points: 2);Widowers exhibit less emotional attachment to their former spouses than widows.Widowers tend to have higher mortality rates than men who are still married.Widowers experience financial difficulties.Widowers' fluid memory decreases drastically.;Question 49.;49.;What is likely to occur for men following widowhood?;(Points: 2);The majority of men remarry.The majority of men die within 6 months of their spouse.The majority of men start a new business.The majority of men begin an exercise program.;Question 50.;50.;In toddlerhood, children are likely to believe that death is ____.;(Points: 2);a natural part of the lifespanpermanentreversibleimaginary;Question 51.;51.;In terms of psychosocial development, ego concerns about death should ____ in later adulthood.;(Points: 2);increasedecreasestay the samefluctuate;Question 52.;52.;The ability to name all the continents of the world is an example of __________.;(Points: 2);fluid intelligencecrystallized intelligencemetacognitionbehavioral slowing;Question 53.;53.;refers to the ability to think, reason, and problem solve that is not dependent on learning and experience.;(Points: 2);Fluid intelligenceCrystallized intelligenceMetacognitionBehavioral intelligence;Question 54.;54.;In psychosocial theory, the ability to accept the facts of one's life and to face death without great fear is called ____.;(Points: 2);despairindustryintegrityachievement;Question 55.;55.;Theresa;was nearing the end of her life. She felt a deep sense of regret about;some opportunities and paths she chose not to take. She was angry at the;way her family, treated her. What state best describes Theresa?;(Points: 2);despairisolationinferioritymistrust;Question 56.;56.;Which of the following types of reminiscence does NOT appear to be associated with positive adjustment?;(Points: 2);obsessive reminiscenceinstrumental reminiscenceintegrative reminiscencestory telling;Question 57.;57.;According;to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, which of the following is considered;the fastest growing age group in the population?;(Points: 2);birth to 2 years12 to 18 years34 to 60 years85 and over;Question 58.;58.;According to Bernice Neugarten, which of the following is a characteristic of the "old-old"?;(Points: 2);They are competent, vigorous, and relatively healthy.They live in their own households.They have suffered major physical or mental decrements which increase their dependence on health and social services.They participate in activities in their communities.;Question 59.;59.;Because variations in life experience and fitness among the very old are great, ____ becomes a less useful indicator of functioning in late life.;(Points: 2);chronological agehealthfunctional independencesocial participation;Question 60.;60.;Which of the following is considered a factor in describing "aging issues" as "women's issues"?;(Points: 2);The majority of those 85 years old and over are women.Women are better prepared for aging than men.Men aren't interested in aging issues.Men don't show many physical characteristics of aging.;Question 61.;61.;Cora;is 73 years old. Her son has observed a relatively sudden change in her;tempo of movement recently. She has begun to move more slowly and;change position very deliberately. Which of the following is the most;likely explanation for her behavior?;(Points: 2);This;is a purposeful strategy for preventing dizziness brought on by some;normal degeneration of the respiratory and circulatory systems.She is too fatigued to move any faster.She is thinking, "At my age why should I rush?"She is showing signs of senility.;Question 62.;62.;Which of the following statements concerning food intake in very old age is most accurate?;(Points: 2);Because of the reduced need for calories, very old people have less of a chance of malnutrition than younger people.Because;of a diminished appetite, the very old person must become more;conscientious in selecting foods that will provide the nutritional;elements necessary for healthy functioning.Slowed metabolism increases the very old person's need for calories.Because;of the increased need for calories, very old people will feel very weak;and lose resilience if they keep eating only as much as they have;previously.;Question 63.;63.;Aging adults tend to be characterized by a gradual slowing in response to stimuli. This is called ____.;(Points: 2);loss of resiliencesedentary inhibitionfatiguebehavioral slowing;Question 64.;64.;How is behavioral slowing related to processing load?;(Points: 2);The greater the processing load, the more likely one is to observe behavioral slowing with age.The greater the processing load, the less likely one is to observe behavioral slowing with age.Processing load is related to behavioral slowing only in younger subjects.Processing load is related to behavioral slowing only in tasks involving motor skills.;Question 65.;65.;What does the term norm of reciprocity mean?;(Points: 2);You are obliged to return in full value what you receive.You expect to give more than you receive.You expect to receive more when you are young, and to give more when you are old.You and your friends gather all your resources and share them.

 

Paper#60052 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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