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PSY 280 -Marriage and Family -Unit 1-4 Exam

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Question;10th Edition, 2009 ISBN: 13: 978-0-495-39092-3;PSY 280 Marriage and Family Text: Marriages and Families: Making Choices in a Diverse Society Authors: Mary Ann Lamanna and Agnes Riedmann Publisher: Thomson Learning, Inc.;Ma;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1. Pets are present in percent of American households. 10 25 40 over 50 2. In his book, The New Work of Dogs, journalist Jon Katz argues that, today, most dogs have work responsibilities. are not viewed as family members. are companion animals. do not represent"family." 3. According to the text, almost 80 percent of families with children have lice. mini-vans. pets. nervous breakdowns. The Census Bureau uses which of the following terms to describe a person or a group of people residing together? family nuclear family extended family household 5. According to the text, in recent years, people have been marrying earlier in life. avoiding marriage. postponing marriage. cohabiting more than marrying.;6. Cohabitation has emerged as a lifestyle that is stigmatized as unhealthy and immoral. that is much more common than marriage. that continues to be illegal. that can be intermediate between marriage and singlehood or an alternative to marriage. The text reports that between 1990 and 2000, percent of marriages were preceded by cohabitation. less than 10 about 15 25 over 50 Which of the following theoretical perspectives is directly concerned with the influence of family policy? interactionist family systems family ecology conflict A strength of the perspective is that it sensitizes us to significant political-economic and social-cultural issues that may not be addressed in other theories. interactionist family ecology structure-functional family systems 1 O.ln his book The Culture of Fear, sociologist Barry Glassner demythologizes some common fears about dangers to children, including all but WHICH of the following? corporate white-collar crime kidnapping by a stranger teen suicide in-school violence;The text points out that it appears we cannot ever completely shield children from global or local dangers, and suggests a(n) analysis of risk. exploratory ecological realistic systems Which of the following is NOT a reason given by the text for decreased American involvement in neighborhood and community? longer working hours commuting patterns homogeneous neighborhoods the tendency to rely on technological tools for interpersonal contact. According to the family development perspective, each developmental task has "ontime" transitions and a certain order in which major transitions to adult roles take place, called _ role sequencing in a row at-a-boys stage order The sequence of singlehood, marriage, parenthood, grandparenthood, and widowhood are a focus of which of the following perspectives? feminist family development family systems interactionist Which of the following is NOT one of the positive consequences of increased longevity identified in the text? increasing numbers of elderly people being cared for by a smaller group of middleaged and young adults more years invested in education longer marriages for those who do not divorce a longer period during which parents and children interact as adults;16. The text points out that, as the proportion of children declines, adults are more likely to be living with children. neighborhoods are less likely to contain children. children are more likely to be a consideration in daily life. the needs and concerns of young children will be elevated in our consciousness. The text defines this term as "the opportunities one has for education and work, whether one can afford to marry, the schools that children attend, and a family's health care": tokens lucky shots life chances cultural bonuses In 2005, the top 20 percent of U.s. families received percent of the nation's total income. 20 30 c, 40 d. 50 19. Which of the following has the highest family incomes? married couple families in which the wife is not in the labor force married couple families with wives in the labor force male-headed families female-headed families 20. According to the text's discussion of social class differences among marriages, working-class couples tend to emphasize values associated with parenthood and job stability and may be more traditional in gender role ideology. white-collar partners are less inclined to value self-expression. middle-class parents stress obedience and conformity in children. parents in working-class families value self-direction and initiative in children.;According to a photograph in the text, families who have a parent deployed in Iraq due to the war sometimes use a as a reminder and emotional focus for the duration of that family member's absence. candle in the window "flat daddy" or "flat mommy" photo album flag According to the text, the military is a more "family friendly" setting (at least in peace time) than the civilian world, and has several benefits and support systems for families. Which of the following is NOT one of these? family housing extensive health insurance longer deployments overseas day care and school age activity centers for older children Warmth, sensitivity, tenderness, and placing concern about others' welfare above self- interest can be classified as character traits. aggressive instrumental expressive agentic The text observes that men are not all alike. Recognizing this, scholars have begun to analyze in the plural, rather than the singular - a recent and subtle change meant to promote our appreciation for the differences among men. masculinities agentics machismos instrumentalities Between 1-4 of live births produce children who are that is, children have some anatomical, chromosomal, or hormonal variation from the male or female biology that is considered normal. transgendered homosexual transexual intersexual;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) Freud, Kinsey, and many present-day psychologists and biologists maintain that humans are inherently.that is, we all have the latent physiological and emotional structures necessary for responding sexually to either sex. heterosexual homosexual transexual bisexual A newly identified sexual orientation is characterized by a lack of sexual attraction to others. What is this sexual orientation called? nonsexuality asexuality neutrality sexual dormancy In our culture, what does the phrase "coming out" mean in terms of sexual orientation? beginning puberty starting to experiment sexually identifying oneself as gay to others choosing a bisexual orientation Until fairly recently, it was stated that about percent of adult individuals are gay or lesbian. However, current research suggests that the proportion is probably lower. 1 5 10 20 No specific differences between heterosexuals and gays have been conclusively established. behavioral genetic socialization development;Whether a same-sex orientation finds expression is clearly affected by apart from or in conjunction with any genetic dispositions. parenting childhood development environment brain chemistry The perspective sees sex as a focus of norms designed to regulate sexuality so that it facilitates responsible reproduction. structure-functional social conflict biosocial interactionist One reason for the decline in marriages in the U.S. is that Americans increasingly expect to find in marriage. our soul mate love wealth happiness and success 9. By 2005, the median age at first marriage for both men and women had stabilized. decreased. risen. begun to fluctuate. 10. According to the text's discussion of the divorced, the divorce rate continues to rise. divorce rate is declining. divorced will continue to contribute to the singles population. the divorce rate is stable at an all-time low level.;11. By 2005, the median age at first marriage for women was 20. almost 22. 24. almost 26. 12. Since 1980, the proportion of widowed women and men has risen slightly. risen substantially. declined. remained about the same. 13. In 2005, the median age for men to marry was 27 25 23 21 14. Which racial/ethnic group is most likely to be married and least likely to be divorced? non-Hispanic white African-American Hispanic Asian American Which racial/ethnic group is least likely to married and most likely to be never-married? Asian American Hispanic African American non-Hispanic white Significantly less likely to be married than other racial/ethnic groups, _ are more likely than other groups to be living by themselves, particularly in older age groups. non-Hispanic whites blacks Native Americans Asians;17. Which category (all ages) is least likely to live alone? Asians and Hispanics non-Hispanic whites blacks divorced parents An emerging alternative to marriage is where a couple is engaged in a long-term relationship, but each partner also maintains a separate dwelling. cohabitation living alone together domestic partnership common-law marriage Living alone together is already a trend in Europe, and is in the United States. unheard of not yet a trend an up and coming trend clearly a trend Although we know little about this family form, it is apparently at least partly moti vated by a desire to retain _ individual financial arrangements separate cars C. autonomy d. personal belongings In 1940, the proportion of adults under age 30 living with their parents was quite high. Sociologists Paul Glick and Sung Ling Lin suggest that this was true because an atmosphere of familism prevailed at this time. the birth rate had been particularly high for several years. the economic depression of the 1930s made it difficult for young men and women to obtain employment on a regular basis. these adult children felt closer to their parents.;22. By 2003, percent of men aged 18-24 lived with their parents. about 5 close to 10 nearly 25 more than 50 Young singles choose to live with their parents for several reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of these reasons? the need for emotional support tax shelter the need for help with child raising economic support Attachment theory leads us to conclude that those with a(n) attachment style are better marriage-partner prospects. avoidant insecure/anxious secure ambivalent 25. Which of the following age categories has the least stable marriages? teenagers people in their early 20s people in their late 20s people in their 30s;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1. The new image of a "good" father in today's society says that fathers _ are mainly providers or breadwinners should be the primary nurturer of the child not only take financial responsibility but also are actively involved in child care can make less money, if they stay at home more An opposite image from "good" fathers are u -''' who "are avoiding even minimal responsibility for their children:' deadbeat dads bad fathers absentee dads poor fathers Racial/ethnic stereotyping often gives us an exaggerated, negative image of ____ as parents. non-Hispanic whites Asian Americans African Americans and Latinos Native Americans The proportion of fathers who serve as the principal parent has in the last 20 years. decreased dramatically significantly increased stayed about the same decreased slightly Which of the following is NOT one of the "facts" discussed in the text concerning fathers as primary parents? About 20 percent of all u.s. children under age fifteen are living with single fathers. About 5 percent of black and of Hispanic children live with single fathers. Whether married or single, fathers as primary parents report facing isolation and stereotypes. Primary-parent fathers have begun to organize support groups.;In the past, research on parent roles viewed fathers as financial providers, disciplinarians, and "playmates,' while mothers were seen mainly as "soul mates:' "counselors:' "caregivers and comfort givers:' "confidantes:' 7. Diane Ehrensaft defines shared parenting in terms of time. in terms of dedication. as a family unit. as an identity. Men continue to dominate corporate America. In 2000, only a little over _ percent ofthe highest-earning executives in Fortune 500 companies were women. 1 5 10 15 The text reports that "the housewife," a woman who views her adult role as one devoted to the home, while she remains economically dependent on the earnings of her husband, the breadwinner, has _ remained a vital presence in our society re-emerged in strength vanished flourished in some ethnic groups Some career women are now the labor force in order to stay home with their children for a time. a. "saying a permanent goodbye"to b. rejecting "turning their back on" "opting out" of;In 2006, almost of mother of children under fifteen in married-couple families were stay-at-home mothers, wives of steadily employed men, who remained out of the labor force for the entire year to "take care of home and family:' one-tenth one-quarter one-third half The family is one in which a traditional division of labor is the ideal. This family model is often associated with evangelical Christianity, as well as Orthodox Judaism, traditional Catholicism, and Mormonism. strictly religious ritualistic neotraditional gender specific Sociologist Jessie Bernard asserted that the role for men emerged in the United States during the 1830s. good provider masculine egalitarian macho 14. The provider role (and its counterpart, the housewife role) lasted into the _ 1950s and 1960s late 1970s early 1990s millennium 15. Employed wives contribute about of a family's income. a tenth a quarter a third a half;According to classification by researchers Huston and Melz, which type of marriage is high on both affection and antagonism? Bland, or empty shell Warm, or friendly Tempestuous, or stormy Hostile, or distressed According to classification by researchers Huston and Melz, which type of marriage is high on antagonism but low on love and affection? Bland, or "empty shell" Warm, or friendly Tempestuous, or stormy Hostile, or distressed According to classification by researchers Huston and Melz, which type of marriage is low on showing signs of love and affection but also low on antagonism? Bland, or empty shell Warm, or friendly Tempestuous, or stormy Hostile, or distressed Tim and Judy were always very physical and lovey-dovey with each other, but they also fought often, sometimes getting loud and physical in their anger. According to Huston and Melz, which type of marriage do they have? Hostile Bland Warm Tempestuous John and Danielle were constantly using criticism, passive-aggressive behavior, and contempt during their fights, and they hadn't said any words of love or touched each other for months. According to Huston and Melz, which type of marriage do they have? Hostile Bland Warm Tempestuous;Eric and Nicole were civil yet distant in their relationship. They never had conflict, but also never slept together and rarely spoke to one another in intimate ways. According to Huston and Melz, which type of marriage do they have? Hostile Bland Warm Tempestuous Todd and Erin were constantly telling and showing each other how much they loved and appreciated one another. They were also not afraid to have healthy conflict when necessary, but always treated each other with respect, even when angry. According to Huston and Melz, which type of marriage do they have? Hostile Bland Warm Tempestuous Huston and Melz called both Bland and Tempestuous unions because these two marriage types evidenced only one of two desirable attributes. "mixed blessing marriages" halfway marriages incomplete marriages "lacking love marriages" A study comparing mutually satisfied couples with those experiencing marital difficulties found that when couples are having trouble getting along or are stressed, they tend to interpret each other's messages and behavior more negatively. fight in a "bonding" fashion. engage in more self-disclosure. avoid the "silent treatment:' Success in marriage has to do with a couple's perhaps more than any other social indicator emphasized by social scientists in earlier studies of marital adjustment. gentleness and humor in relating to each other social similarity financial stress age at marriage;Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) Social scientists Robert Blood and Donald Wolfe interviewed about 900 wives in greater Detroit and asked who made the final decision in various areas. From their interviews, they drew the conclusion that most families had a(n)" "decision-making structure. relatively egalitarian authoritative patriarchal very traditional Blood and Wolfe's investigation involving interviews with 900 wives in Detroit, Michigan, had the important effect of encouraging people to see marital power as patriarchal. matriarchal. shared. traditional. The text points out that there are important areas of family life that were NOT included in the Blood and Wolfe study. Which of the following was, in fact, included in their investigation? sexual life how many children to have how much freedom for same or opposite-sex friendships decision making According to Gillespie, the resource hypothesis (which presents resources as neutral and power as gender-free) is rationalizing the preponderance of the male sex. the most adequate explanation of gender equality. thoroughly supported by research findings on gender inequality. useless. One way in which women come to have fewer resources is through their _ and resulting economic dependence. comparative weakness reproductive roles vocational lag lack of higher education;6. In a traditional society, is legitimate power. egalitarianism female authority male authority child-focused decision-making Studies comparing traditional societies with more modern ones suggest that in a traditional society, norms of patriarchal authority may be so strong that they override personal resources and give considerable power to all husbands. This perspective is termed resources in cultural context. family ecology. relative love and need. egalitarian normative. Resource theory explains marital power only when there is no overriding _ norm or norm of marital power. transitional/relative egalitarian/patriarchal dominant/subordinate matriarchal/superior Which theoretical perspective views families as shaping family traditions and family members' self-concepts and identities? interactionist family systems conflict family development 10. Which theoretical perspective views the family as a living thing, with each component influencing all of the others? family development interactionist family systems conflict;Dealing with the experience of a family who is trying to adjust to sending the youngest child off to college illustrates which theoretical perspective? interactionist family systems family development conflict When a family member becomes addicted to alcohol, the entire family system is affected. Which theoretical perspective views a family as such? family ecology family development interactionist family systems Trying to counsel and help a family who was living in New York on Sept. 11,2001 and who still struggle with the resulting trauma illustrates which theoretical perspective? family ecology family systems family development conflict The text points out that something must happen to cause family stress or to precipitate a family crisis. That something is what social scientists call a precondition. dysfunction. structural threat. stressor. lS.ln general, stressors are less difficult to cope with when they are all EXCEPT which of the following? expected brief unexpected able to gradually improve over time;16. Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as a type of stressor? receiving a pay increase ambiguous loss conflict over family roles daily family hassles The text points out that adding a family member is stressful because doing so involves intimacy. family boundary changes. an ambiguous loss. demoralization. Among low-income couples, a wife's earnings may actually help to hold the marriage together by counteracting the negative effects of poverty and economic insecurity on marital stability. This is known as the effect. bootstrap positive stabilizing income offsetting 19. In a study conducted in the Boston area, Brennan, Barnett, and Gareis found that all men were disturbed when their wives had higher earnings. role specialization is no longer so important to couple solidarity. women were adversely affected when they earned more than their husbands did. role specialization is very important to couples. Marriage was originally a social institution directed toward the practical purposes of economic support and responsible child rearing. Today, marriage tends to be viewed as a flexible agreement. contract. nadir of involvement. a happy, emotionally supportive relationship.;21. divorce laws, which exist in all fifty states, have eliminated legal concepts of guilt and are a symbolic representation of how our society now views divorce. Mutual No-fault Equal party No-custody There are a variety of demographic and behavioral factors that are related to divorce rates. Which of the following is NOT one of these? Young children tend to destabilize marriage. Remarried mates are more likely to divorce. e. Race and ethnicity are differentially associated with the chances of divorcing. Premarital pregnancy and childbearing increase the risk of divorce in a subsequent marriage. According to the most systematic investigation, marital complaints made by both men and women are usually about not enough sex. not enough money. e. deficiencies in the emotional quality of the marriage. d. infidelity. Sociologist Linda Waite studied couples on the verge of divorcing, and found out that for those who remained married, two-thirds described themselves as" n five years later. very unhappy still on the verge of divorce struggling at times very happy Improvements in unhappy marriages come about for various reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons cited by sociologist Linda Waite? the passage of time (children got older, job or other problems improved) hormonal changes (helped with moods and fighting) e. partners' efforts to work on problems, make changes, and communicate better d. individual partners made personal changes (travel, work, hobbies, ete.)

 

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