Question;Al discussions;Week;1;Descriptive Statistics (graded);If you were given a;large data set such as the sales over the last year of our top 1,000 customers;what might you be able to do with this data? What might be the benefits of;describing the data?;Week;2;Regression (graded);Suppose you are given;data from a survey showing the IQ of each person interviewed and the IQ of his;or her mother. That is all the information that you have. Your boss has asked;you to put together a report showing the relationship between these two variables.;What could you present and why?;Week;3;Statistics in the News (graded);Keep your eyes and;ears open as you read or listen to the news this week. Find/discover an example;of statistics in the news to discuss the following statement that represents;one of the objectives of statistics analysis: ?Statistics helps us make decisions;based on data analysis.? Briefly discuss how the news item or article meets;this objective. Cite your references.;Week 4;Discrete Probability Variables (graded);What are examples of;variables that follow a binomial probability distribution? What are examples of;variables that follow a Poisson distribution? When might you use a geometric;probability?;Week 5;Interpreting Normal Distributions (graded);Assume that a;population is normally distributed with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation;of 15. Would it be unusual for the mean of a sample of 3 to be 115 or more? Why;or why not?;Week 6;Confidence Interval Concepts (graded);Consider the formula;used for any confidence interval and the elements included in that formula.;What happens to the confidence interval if you (a) increase the confidence;level, (b) increase the sample size, or (c) increase the margin of error? Only;consider one of these changes at a time. Explain your answer with words and by;referencing the formula.;Week 7;Rejection Region (graded);How is the rejection;region defined and how is that related to the z-score and the p value? When do;you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis? Why do you think;statisticians are asked to complete hypothesis testing? Can you think of;examples in courts, in medicine, or in your area?;Statistics ? Lab Week 2;Name;Math221;Statistical Concepts;?;Using Minitab;?;Graphics;?;Shapes of Distributions;?;Descriptive Statistics;?;Empirical Rule;Data in Minitab;? Minitab is a;powerful, yet user-friendly, data analysis software package. You can launch Minitab;by finding the icon and double clicking on it. After a moment you will see two;windows, the Session Window in the top half of the screen and the Worksheet or;Data Window in the bottom half.;? Data have already;been formatted and entered into a Minitab worksheet. Go to the eCollege Doc;sharing site to download this data file. The names of each variable from the;survey are in the first row of the Worksheet. This row has a background color;of gray to identify it as the variable names. All other rows of the Minitab Worksheet;represent a certain students? answers to the survey questions. Therefore, the;rows are called observations and the columns are called variables. Included;with this lab, you will find a code sheet that identifies the correspondence;between the variable names and the survey questions.;? Complete the questions after the Code Sheet;and paste the Graphs from Minitab in the grey areas for question 1 through 3. Type;your answers to questions 4 through 11 where noted in the grey areas. When asked for explanations, please give;thorough, multi-sentence or paragraph length explanations. The completed iLab;Word Document with your responses to the questions will be the ONE and only;document submitted to the dropbox. When saving and submitting the document, you;are required to use the following format: Last Name_ First Name_Week2iLab.;Code Sheet;Do NOT answer these questions. The Code Sheet just;lists the variables name and the question used by the researchers on the survey;instrument that produced the data that are included in the Minitab data file.;This is just information. The first question for the lab is after the code;sheet.;Variable Name;Question;Drive;Question 1 ? How long does it take you to drive to the school on;average (to the nearest minute)?;State;Question 2 ? What state/country were you born?;Temp;Question 3 ? What is the temperature outside right now?;Rank;Question 4 ? Rank all of the courses you are currently taking. The;class you look most forward to taking will be ranked one, next two, and so;on. What is the rank assigned to this class?;Height;Question 5 ? What is your height to the nearest inch?;Shoe;Question 6 ? What is your shoe size?;Sleep;Question 7 ? How many hours did you sleep last night?;Gender;Question 8 ? What is your gender?;Race;Question 9 ? What is your race?;Car;Question 10 ? What color of car do you drive?;TV;Question 11 ? How long (on average) do you spend a day watching TV?;Money;Question 12 ? How much money do you have with you right now?;Coin;Question 13 ? Flip a coin 10 times. How many times did you get tails?;Die1;Question 14 ? Roll a six-sided die 10 times and record the results.;Die2;Die3;Die4;Die5;Die6;Die7;Die8;Die9;Die10;Creating Graphs;1. Create a Pie Chart for the variable Car -;Pull up Graph > Pie Chart and click in the categories variables box so that;the list of variables will show up on the left. Now double click on the;variable name 'Car" in the box at the left of the window. Include a title;by clicking on the "Labels." button and typing it in the correct text;area (put your name in as the title). In this same labels window, select the;tab- Slice Labels and click on all, Category name, Frequency, Percent, Draw a;line from label to slice and then click OK. Click OK again to create graph. Click;on the graph and use Ctrl+C to copy and come back here, click below this;question and use Ctrl+V to paste it in this Word document.;2. Create a;histogram for the variable Height ? Pull up Graph > Histograms and choose ?Simple?. Then set the graph variable to ?height?.;Include a title by clicking on the ?Labels?? button and typing it in the;correct text area (put your name in as the title) and click OK. Copy and paste the graph here.;3. Create a stem and;leaf chart for the variable Money ? Pull up Graph > Stem-and Leaf and set Variables: to ?Money?. Enter 10 for the Increment: and click OK.;The leaves of the stem-leaf plot will be;the one?s digits of the values in the ?Money? variable. Note: the first column of the stem-leaf plot;that you create is the count. The row;with the count in parentheses includes the median. The counts below the median cumulate from the;bottom of the plot.Copy and paste the graph here.;Calculating Descriptive;Statistics;4. Calculate;descriptive statistics for the variable Height by Gender ? Pull up Stat > Basic Statistics > Display;Descriptive Statistics and set Variables;to Height. Check By variable: and;enter Gender into this text box. Click;OK. Type the mean and the standard;deviation for both males and females in the space below this question.;Mean;Standard;deviation;Females;Males;? Select File;Save Worksheet As to save the data set. You must either keep a copy of;this data or download it again off the web site for future labs.;Short Answer Writing;Assignment;All answers should be;complete sentences.;5. What is the most;common color of car for students who participated in this survey? Explain how;you arrived at your answer.;What is seen;in the histogram created for the heights of students in this class;(include the shape)? Explain your answer.;What is seen;in the stem and leaf plot for the money variable (include the shape)?;Explain your answer.;Compare the;mean for the heights of males and the mean for the heights of females in;these data. Compare the values and explain what can be concluded based on;the numbers.;Compare the standard;deviation for the heights of males and the standard deviation for the;heights of females in the class. Compare the values and explain what can;be concluded based on the numbers.;Using the;empirical rule, 95% of female heights should be between what two values?;Either show work or explain how your answer was calculated.;Using the;empirical rule, 68% of male heights should be between what two values?;Either show work or explain how your answer was calculated.;Statistics ? Lab Week 4;Name;MATH221;Statistical Concepts;?;Probability;?;Binomial Probability Distribution;Calculating Binomial;Probabilities;? Open a new MINITAB worksheet.;? We are interested in a binomial experiment with 10 trials. First, we;will make the probability of a success ?. Use MINITAB to calculate the;probabilities for this distribution. In column C1 enter the word ?success? as;the variable name (in the shaded cell above row 1. Now in that same column;enter the numbers zero through ten to represent all possibilities for the;number of successes. These numbers will end up in rows 1 through 11 in that;first column. In column C2 enter the;words ?one fourth? as the variable name. Pull up Calc > Probability Distributions > Binomial and select the;radio button that corresponds to Probability.;Enter 10 for the Number of trials;and enter 0.25 for the Event;probability:. For the Input column;select ?success? and for the Optional;storage: select ?one fourth?. Click the button OK and the probabilities will be displayed in the Worksheet.;? Now we will change the probability of a success to ?. In column C3;enter the words ?one half? as the variable name. Use similar steps to that;given above in order to calculate the probabilities for this column. The only difference is in Event probability: use 0.5.;? Finally, we will change the probability of a success to ?. In column;C4 enter the words ?three fourths? as the variable name. Again, use similar steps to that given above;in order to calculate the probabilities for this column. The only difference is;in Event probability: use 0.75.;Plotting;the Binomial Probabilities;1.;Create plots for the three;binomial distributions above. Select Graph;Scatter Plot and Simple;then for graph 1 set Y equal to ?one fourth? and X to ?success? by clicking on;the variable name and using the ?select? button below the list of;variables. Do this two more times and;for graph 2 set Y equal to ?one half? and X to ?success?, and for graph 3 set Y;equal to ?three fourths? and X to ?success?.;Paste those three scatter plots below.;Calculating Descriptive;Statistics;? Open the class;survey results that were entered into the MINITAB worksheet.;2.;Calculate descriptive statistics for the variable;where students flipped a coin 10 times. Pull up Stat > Basic Statistics > Display Descriptive Statistics and;set Variables: to the coin. The;output will show up in your Session Window.;Type the mean and the standard deviation here.;Mean;Standard deviation;Short Answer Writing;Assignment ? Both the calculated binomial probabilities and the descriptive;statistics from the class database will be used to answer the following;questions.;3.;List the probability value for each possibility in;the binomial experiment that was calculated in MINITAB with the probability of;a success being ?. (Complete sentence not necessary);P(x=0);P(x=6);P(x=1);P(x=7);P(x=2);P(x=8);P(x=3);P(x=9);P(x=4);P(x=10);P(x=5);4. Give the;probability for the following based on the MINITAB calculations with the;probability of a success being ?. (Complete sentence not necessary);P(x?1);P(x 1);P(x?4);P(4 Basic Statistics > Display Descriptive;Statistics and set Variables: to mean and median. The output will show up in;your Session Window. Print this information.;Calculating Confidence Intervals for one Variable;? Open the class survey results that were entered into the MINITAB worksheet.;? We are interested in calculating a 95% confidence interval for the hours of;sleep a student gets. Pull up Stat > Basic Statistics > 1-Sample t and;set Samples in columns: to Sleep. Click the OK button and the results will;appear in your Session Window.;? We are also interested in the same analysis with a 99% confidence interval.;Use the same steps except select the Options button and change the Confidence;level: to 99.
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