Question;Question 1;See Case study and Spreadsheet;Q1 - Suppose in;the population, the Anger-Out score for men is two points higher than it is for;women. The population variances for men and women are both 20. Assume the;Anger-Out scores for both genders are normally distributed. Given this;information about the population parameters;(a) What is the;mean of the sampling distribution of the difference between means? (relevant section);(b) What is the standard error of the difference between means? (relevant section);(c) What is the probability that you would have gotten this mean difference;(see #24) or less in your sample?;Q2 -;Calculate the 95% confidence interval for the difference between the mean;Anger-In score for the athletes and non-athletes. What can you conclude?;Q3 - a);What is the 95% confidence interval on the difference between means?;(b) Based on your confidence interval, can you reject the null hypothesis at;the.05 level?;(c) What do you conclude?;Is there a;difference in how much males and females use aggressive behavior to improve an;angry mood? For the "Anger-Out" scores, compare the means for each;gender.;Anger-Out Case study;Case study prepared by: Emily ZitekOverview;People have different ways of improving their mood when angry. We have all seen;people punch a wall when mad, and indeed, previous research has indicated that;some people aggress to improve their mood (Bushman, Baumeister & Phillips;2001). What do the top athletes do when angry? Striegel (1994) found that anger;often hurts an athlete?s performance and that capability to control anger is;what makes good athletes even better. This study adds to the past research and;examines the difference in ways to improve an angry mood by gender and sports;participation.;(a);The participants were 78 Rice;University undergraduates, ages 17 to 23. Of these 78 participants, 48 were;females and 30 were males and 25 were athletes and 53 were non-athletes. People;who did not play a varsity or club sport were considered non-athletes. The 13;contact sport athletes played soccer, football, rugby, or basketball, and the;12 non-contact sport athletes participated in Ultimate Frisbee, baseball;tennis, swimming, volleyball, crew, or dance.;The participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire that asked about what;they do to improve their mood when angry or furious. Then they filled out a;demographics questionnaire.;Note:This study used the most recent version of the State-Trait;Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2) (Spielberger, Sydeman, Owen & Marsh;1999) which was modified to create an Angry Mood Improvement Inventory similar;to that created by Bushman et al. (2001).;(b);Design Issues;This study has an extremely unbalanced design. There were a lot more;non-athletes than athletes in the sample. In the future, more athletes should;be used. This study originally wanted to look at contact and non-contact;athletes separately, but there were not enough participants to do this. Future;studies could look at this. Descriptions of Variables;Variable;Description;Sports;1 = athletes, 2 =;non-athletes;Gender;1 = males, 2 =;females;Anger-Out (AO);high scores;demonstrate that people deal with anger by expressing it in a verbally or;physically aggressive fashion;Anger-In;(AI);high scores;demonstrate that people experience anger but do not express it (suppress;their anger);Control-Out (CO);high scores;demonstrate that people control the outward expression of angry feelings;Control-In (CI);high scores;demonstrate that people control angry feelings by calming down or cooling off;Expression (AE);index of general;anger expression;(Anger-Out) + (Anger-In) - (Control-Out) - (Control-In) + 48;(c);Note: Description of the;items comes from Spielberger et al. (1999).;References;Bushman;B.J., Baumeister, R.F. & Phillips, C.M. (2001). Do people aggress to;improve their mood? Catharsis beliefs, affect regulation opportunity, and;aggressive responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1);17-32.;Spielberger, C. D., Sydeman, S. J., Owen, A. E., Marsh;B. J. (1999).Measuring;anxiety and anger with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the;State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The;use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment;(2nd ed., pp. 993-1021). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.;Striegel;D. (1994). Anger in tennis: Part 2. Effects of anger on performance, coping;with anger, and using anger to one?s benefit. Journal of Performance;Psychology, 2, 56-92.
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