Question;2 3 Between-Subjects Factorial ANOVA: Study Environments by GenderThis study investigates whether study environment affects academic performance. In addition,this study investigates whether sex of student "moderates" the effect of study environment onacademic performance (that is, do males and females differ in how much benefit they get fromstudying in certain environments).During the first half of the spring semester, 120 male students and 120 female students in grade10 at a public high school in a large metropolitan area in the southwestern region of the UnitedStates were randomly assigned to one of three study environment: study in front of the TV, at thelibrary, or in the food court. The students could ONLY study in the environment to which theywere assigned during the research period. At the end of the 7-week research period, mid-termGPA was computed for each student. A change score was computed for each student: eachstudent's spring midterm GPA was subtracted from his or her GPA for the preceding fallsemester. The difference was each student's GPA Improvement score. The GPA improvementscore was used to measure academic performance.Directions:Using the SPSS 2 3 ANOVA data file for Module 4 (located in Topic Materials), answer thefollowing questions. NOTE: Helpful hints are provided here for you to use while answeringthese questions. There is no separate answer sheet/guide to use while doing this assignment.1. What are the two independent variables in this study? What is the dependent variable?2. Why is a two-way between-subjects factorial ANOVA the correct statistic to use for thisresearch design?3. Did you find any errors that the researcher made when setting up the SPSS data file(Remember to check the variable view)? If so, what did you find? How did you correctit?4. Run Descriptive Statistics on the dependent variable data. What do the skewness andkurtosis values tell you about whether the data satisfy the assumption of normality?5. Perform a between-subjects factorial ANOVA on the data.a. What do the results of the Levene's Test tell you about your data? What does thismean in terms of interpreting the outcomes of the ANOVA?b. What do the results of the Tests of Between-Subjects Effects tell you? Was there asignificant main effect of Environment on GPA improvement? Was there asignificant main effect of Sex on GPA improvement? Was there a significantinteraction effect of Environment X Sex on GPA improvement? Report the resultsfor each of these questions providing the actual F-value and p value using thefollowing format: F(df1, df2) = ____, p =.___ or if the p is shown as.000, writeit as p <.001, an example of this formatting is F(1, 400) = 15.4, p =.02).c. Use eta squared to provide effect size/proportion of variance accounted associatedwith each F-value. If the F-value for a main effect and/or for an interaction effectis statistically significant, what is the eta squared (2) value associated with thatoutcome?HINT:Report eta squared, 2, ignore partial eta squared that SPSS can provide.You have to calculate eta squared yourself. It is not given to you by SPSS,but you can use what SPSS provides to calculate it. Eta squared is calculatedby using the values in the column headed "Type III Sum of Squares" fromthe table with the results for Tests of Between-Subjects Effects." To computeeta squared, which would be notated as 2, take that source's Type III Sumof Squares and divide it by the value for Corrected Total in the samecolumn. For example, if the Type III Sum of Squares for Environment hadbeen 4.5 rather than 4.696, you would divide 4.5 by 14.677 to get the effectsize for Environment. If the Type III Sum of Squares for Sex had been 2.0,you also would divide that by 14.677, etc. Interpret these eta squared resultsfor effect size using the following guidelines from Cohen (1988):.01 ~ small.06 ~ medium.14 ~ larged. If the result for the main effect of Environment was statistically significant, whatdid you find out when you performed post hoc tests (Tukey HSD) to look atpossible statistically significant differences in the pairs of means for Environmentgroups?e. If the result for the interaction of Environment X Sex was statistically significant,what follow up tests did you perform to understand what was going on here? Thatis, what did you do to find out what was different for males in the various studyEnvironments versus for females in the various study Environments in effects onGPA improvement? What did you learn?f. When you have a factorial ANOVA and the interaction effect is significant, doesthe researcher give much attention to any significant main effects wheninterpreting the results of the study?6. Citing the results of your statistical analyses, what is the conclusion you can draw (andsupport) regarding research question that was posed in this research (see problemstatement)? Write a results section for this study that expresses and supports thisconclusion.HINT:Use the sample write-up of the results for the Two-Way Between-SubjectsANOVA example that is in the textbook to see what you should report and how tosay it. Just substitute the correct language and values for the analyses you havedone for this problem.
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