Question;?;Consider each of the following scenarios and explain whether the;variable in question is a confounder;1.;A;study of the relationship between exercise and heart attacks that is conducted;among women who do not smoke. Explain whether gender is a confounder.;2.;A case-control study of the relationship;between liver cirrhosis and alcohol use. In this study, smoking is associated;with drinking alcohol and is a risk factor for liver cirrhosis among both;non-alcoholics and alcoholics. Explain whether smoking is a confounder.;?;Interpret the results of the following studies;2.;An;odds ratio of 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.5) is found for the;association of low socioeconomic status and occurrence of obesity.;3.;A;relative risk of 3.0 is reported for the association between consumption of red;meat and the occurrence of colon cancer. The p-value of the association is;0.15.;4.;An;odds ratio of 7 (95% confidence interval: 3.0 ? 11.4) is found for the;association of smoking and lung cancer.;?;The;relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted in a;case-control study with 700 cases and 425 controls. Using the results below;calculate the crude odds ratio and explain what the ratio means;Heavy Smoking?Cases: 450, Controls: 200;Not Heavy Smoking?Cases: 250, Controls: 225;Perform the appropriate calculations to test for effect;modification. Interpret your results.
Paper#61758 | Written in 18-Jul-2015Price : $25