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BIO-WEEK 7 EXPERIMENT ASSIGNMENT

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Question;WEEK 7 EXPERIMENT ANSWER;SHEETPlease;submit to the Week 7 Experiment dropbox no later than Sunday midnight.;SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES FOR WEEK 7 EXPERIMENT ASSIGNMENT;Experiment 7 Exercise 1 ? Evolutionary;Change without Natural Selection;Experiment 7 Exercise 2 ? Evolutionary;Change with Natural Selection;Experiment 7 Exercise 3 ? Evolution;and Genetic Drift;Before;starting, be sure you have read over the information in the Week 7 Experiment Introduction.;Materials Needed;For;the first two exercises you will need the following;50 red M&Ms and 50 green;M&Ms or 50 each of two;items that are distinguishable by color but are similar in size and;texture (e.g., dimes and pennies, two different color beads).;Four containers large;enough to hold the above items.;Experiment 7 Exercise 1: Evolutionary Change without Natural Selection;In;this first exercise, we are going to look for evidence of evolutionary change;in a population in the absence of;natural selection by looking at the change in allele frequencies over time in a;simulated population. We will start with a population of 50 individuals in which there are two alternate alleles (H;and h);in equal proportions (each at a frequency of 0.5 or 50%). Individuals have the;possible genotypes: HH;Hhor hh.;These two alleles do not;offer any selective advantage, so neither is selected for or against, meaning;they are neutral. We will record the;frequency of these alleles over 10 generations. Prior to advancing on to the;next generation, six alleles (= three individuals) will be removed at random.;Before;you begin, answer the following;Question;What is your prediction as to what will happen;to the frequencies (note that this;is different than the number) of these two alleles over 10 generations?;Word your prediction as an ?if-then? statement based on the experiment design. (1;pts).;Procedure;Let 50;M&M's of one color (i.e. red) represent the dominant allele (H);and 50 M&M's of another color (i.e. green) represent the recessive allele (h).;Let one container represent the Habitat where random mating occurs.;Place all of the M&Ms (or other items) into this container. This is;your starting gene pool of your;?parent? population or Generation 0.;Label the other three containersHHfor;homozygous dominant individuals, Hh for heterozygous individuals;and hh for the homozygous recessive individuals. Notice that;individuals have two alleles.;Mix up your Habitat;well and without looking, select two;items (alleles) at a time, these two alleles represent a single individual. On a piece of paper, keep track of the genotypes of the individuals;withdrawn. For instance, if you draw one red and one green M&M, that;counts towards "Number ofHhindividuals." If you draw two;red M&Ms, that counts towards "Number ofHHindividuals" and so on.;Continue drawing pairs and recording the results;until all items (alleles) have been withdrawn and sorted. Be sure to place;the ?offspring? into the appropriate dish:HH, Hh, or hh. Note that the total number of;individuals will be half the total number of items because each individual;requires two alleles, so you will have 50 offspring (but 100 alleles). Record the number;of HH, Hhand hh individuals drawn for Generation 1 in Table 1 below.;Next count (or calculate) the total number of H and the total number of h;alleles for the first generation and record the number in Table 1 below in the columns;labeled "Number of H;Alleles" and "Number of h;Alleles.;Add up the total number ofHalleles andhalleles for the first;generation and record this number in the column labeled "Total Number;of Alleles." If you did everything correct, you should still;have 50 H alleles and 50 h alleles.This;has already been entered for you in the Table below for Generation 1.;Combine the HH;Hhand hh individuals back into the Habitat container and mix well. Randomly remove three;pairs of alleles (= three individuals, six items) and set them aside.;Repeat steps D through H to obtain Generations;2 through 10. Remember to randomly remove threepairs of alleles each time.Because I know;that each generation will have six;fewer alleles, I have also entered the total number of alleles in the;Table below. Be sure that is the number your;alleles add up to!;Here is a;photograph of this process after six generations. The sixth generation has been;distributed into the HH, Hh and hh containers. Note that dimes and pennies have been used.;After entering your number of;individuals and allele counts for each generation, you now need to determine;the allele frequencyofHandhfor each generation and record them;the Table below. To determine;allele frequency take;# ofH/Total alleles in the generation;= Allele frequency ofH(express as a decimal);# ofh/Total alleles in the generation;=Allelefrequency ofh;Note that the;total number of alleles will change;each generation, but the frequency the H;allele plus the frequency of the h;allele should add up to 1.0 for each generation.;Table 1. Results evolutionary change without natural selection (2 pts).;Generation;Number of HH individuals;Number;of Hh individuals;Number;of hh individuals;Number;of H alleles;Number;of h alleles;Total;Number of alleles;Allele;Frequency of H;Allele;Frequency of h;1;50;50;100;0.5;0.5;2;94;3;88;4;82;5;76;6;70;7;64;8;58;9;52;10;46;Generate;a line graph of Allele frequency vs Generation. This means you need;to graph the last two columns of your data in the Table above. Paste your;graph below. Be sure to label your axes (3 pts).;Questions;Describe what your graph above depicts;with respect to the frequency of the two different alleles across;generations(2 pts).;Was your prediction correct? Why or why not (1 pts)?;Define evolution. Are;the results of this simulation an example of evolution? Explain your;answer. Cite any sources used (4;pts).;Experiment 7 Exercise 2: Evolution Change with Natural Selection;In;this second exercise, we will determine the effect that natural selection has on the frequency of two alleles which start;off in equal proportions (50:50) in the population. This time, individuals who;are hh die, meaning the homozygous recessive allele combination is lethal. These individuals will be;removed from the gene pool when they are drawn and will not contribute to the;following generation. This means that the h;allele is being selected against. Keep in mind that carriers of this lethal allele (e.g., those individuals that are Hh) are unaffected because the h allele is recessive.;Question;1.;What is your prediction;as to what will happen to the frequencies of these two alleles over 10;generations? Word your prediction as an ?if-then? statement based on the;experimental design. (1 pts).;Procedure;A.;Return ALL alleles to the Habitat;container and ensure that it contains 50 H;alleles and 50 h alleles. This is our;Generation 0.;B.;Use the other three containers labeledHHfor homozygous dominant individuals, Hh;for heterozygous individuals and hh for the homozygous recessive;individuals.;C.;Mix up your Habitat container;well and without looking, select two;alleles at a time, these two represent a single;individual. On a piece of paper, keep track of the type of individual withdrawn (HH, Hh;or hh).;D.;Continue drawing pairs and recording the results until all alleles;have been withdrawn and sorted. Be sure to place the ?offspring? into the;appropriate dish:HH, Hh, or;hh. Record the number of HH, Hh;and hh individuals drawn for Generation;1 in Table 2 below.;E.;Next count (or calculate) the total;number of H and h alleles for the first generation and record the number in the;Table below.;F.;Add up the number ofHalleles andhalleles;for the first generation and record this number in the column labeled;Total Number of Alleles." If you did everything correct, you;should still have 50 H alleles and 50 h alleles.This has already been entered for;you in the Table below for Generation 1.You will need to enter this information for;Generations 2-10, as it will change.;G.;Now it is time for natural;selection. Remove all of the h alleles from the container labeled;hh;and discard them. These individuals have died and cannot reproduce.;H.;Return the alleles of the remaining HH and Hhindividuals;back to the Habitat container.;I.;Repeat steps D through H to obtain Generations 2 through 10.;Remember that each time, all hh individuals die and are removed;after you have counted them.;J.;After entering your number of individuals and allele counts for;each generation, you now need to determine the allele frequency ofHandhfor each generation and record them in;Table 2below.;Table 2. Results from evolutionary change with natural selection (2 pts).;Generation;Number of HH individuals;Number;of Hh individuals;Number;of hh individuals;Number;of H alleles;Number;of h alleles;Total;Number of alleles;Allele;Frequency of H;Allele;Frequency of h;1;50;50;100;0.5;0.5;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;K. Generate a line graph of Allele frequency vs;Generation #. This means you need to graph the last two columns of your data in;the Table above. Paste your graph below. Be sure to label your axes (3 pts).;Questions;2. Describe what your;graph above depicts with respect to the frequency of the two different alleles;across generations(2 pts).;3. Was your prediction correct? Why or why not (1 pts)?;4.;Explain why the h allele;was not entirely eliminated from the population (2 pts).;Based;on your earlier definition of evolution, are the results of this;simulation an example of evolution? Explain your answer (2 pts).;Experiment 7 Exercise 3: Mechanisms of;Evolutionary Change;Be;sure that you have completed the suggested readings, your success on this;exercise is dependent on your understanding of evolutionary concepts!;Procedure;Open the following website;BioMan Biology. No date. Biology;Games and Virtual Labs: Evolutionhttp://biomanbio.com/GamesandLabs/EvoClassGames/aaevo.html;Click where it says Press Spacebar or Click Here to Continue!;And click again to continue.;Read over the instructions;carefully, paying particular attention to the controls. Notice that as you;successfully shoot the correct answer, you will need to reload.;Click again where it says Press Spacebar or Click Here to;Continue!;Click on Mechanisms and begin.;A statement will be shown at;the bottom of the screen.;Use the arrow keys to move to;the correct term and use the space to shoot it down. Remember to reload!;Keep playing until you are told;?You have succeeded here earthling!;But can you save the rest of your planet?? Start over if you fail.;Record your % correct and score;in Table 3 below when you are;done. Feel free to repeat to;improve your score if you would like.;Reload the page to start;over or click on the link above to return to the start page.;Click where it says Press Spacebar or Click Here to;Continue! And click again to continue.;Review the instructions and;click again where it says Press;Spacebar or Click Here to Continue!;Click on Mechanisms 2 and begin.;As before, a statement will be;shown at the bottom of the screen.;Use the arrow keys to move to;the correct term and use the space to shoot it down. Remember to reload!;Keep playing until you are told;?You have succeeded here earthling!;But can you save the rest of your planet?? Start over if you fail.;Record your % correct and score;in Table 3 below when you are;done. Feel free to repeat to;improve your score if you would like.;Answer the questions that follow.;Table 3. Results (2 pts);%;Correct;Score;Mechanisms;100;1003;Mechanisms 2;100;1006;Questions;1.;Match the following statements with the correct term (5 pts);a. Mutation f. Bottleneck;b. Genetic drift g.;Founder effect;c. Gene flow h.;Immigration;d. Natural selection i. Emigration;e. Non-random mating j.;Speciation;Type;of genetic drift that occurs when a new colony is established, that by chance;is genetically different than the original population.;Can result in evolution by acting on;favorable traits.;Only male lions with large, thick manes are;able to breed.;Reproductive isolation of two populations;of penguins can result in this.;The loss or gain of alleles from a;population by the movement of individuals into or out of the population.;Movement;of individuals into a population, bringing with them new alleles.;Random;events that cause changes in gene frequencies.;Type;of genetic drift in which there is a drastic reduction in population size and a;change in allele frequencies.;The ultimate source of new alleles and;traits that natural selection can act on.;When individuals leave a population, taking;alleles along with them.;Week 7 Experiment Grading Rubric;Component;Expectation;Points;Experiment 7 Exercise 1;Collection of data and generation of a line graph;correctly labeled (Table 1 and graph of data).;5 pts;Demonstrates an understanding of evolutionary change;without natural selection (Questions 1-4).;8 pts;Experiment 7 Exercise 2;Collection of data and generation of a line graph;correctly labeled (Table 2 and graph of data).;5 pts;Demonstrates an understanding of evolutionary change with;natural selection (Questions 1-5).;8 pts;Experiment 7 Exercise 3;Success at Angry Aliens and an;understanding of the mechanisms of evolutionary change (Table 3).;2 pts;Demonstrates an understanding of the;various mechanisms of evolutionary change(Question 1).;5 pts;TOTAL;33 pts

 

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