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BIO-Evolution and Natural Selection Lab..

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Question;Evolution and Natural Selection Lab (50 points);Type your results and responses to;questions in this report and submit. Please answer all questions in full;sentences.;Materials;Bag of 15 bean soup (dry beans), cup;2 Paper lunch bags, paper and pencil.;1. We shall simulate genetic;drift and effects of a bottleneck on genetic drift in this simulation. (15 points);Review ?Evolution;Occurs in Several Ways?, Chapter 11.6 in your textbook.;Instructions;Count out 25 speckled beans, 25 black beans, 25 white;beans and 25 red beans (it is easiest if you choose beans of the same size and;put in container. The beans represent different alleles (Unit 3). This means;each type of bean makes up 25% of the total number of beans (or alleles);(25/100 = 0.25).;Write two hypotheses answering the two questions;below (5 points);a.;How would the ratio of bean;phenotypes change if you randomly pick 40 beans from the container? Will the ratio change significantly in each;repetition (generation)?;b.;How would the ratio of bean;phenotypes change if you only pick 10 beans from the container? Will the ratio change significantly in each;repetition (generation)?;Method;Now take 40 beans from the counter and count the;different phenotypes black, white, red and speckled. Write the results in the data;chart, then return the beans to the container, shake to mix, and repeat the;experiment two more times. Next, take only 10 beans from the container. Count;the different beans and add the data to the chart. Return the beans to the;container and repeat three more times. Complete the data chart below.;Results (5;points);Large Sample (40 beans);Bean;(Phenotype);Original Population;Exp #1;Exp #2;Exp #3;#;%;#;%;#;%;#;%;Small Sample (10;beans);BLR;(Phenotype);Original Population;Exp #1;Exp #2;Exp #3;#;%;#;%;#;%;#;%;Were your hypotheses correct?;Answer the following questions (5 points);I.;What was the range of ratios of;bean phenotypes in the large sample? In the small sample?;II.;How would genetic drift affect;the gene pool in a genetic bottleneck?;III.;Could genetic drift lead to;evolution of new species? Consider ratios of phenotypes of each small sample. Under;which condition would this change lead to speciation?;2. Simulation of Hardy;Weinberg Equilibrium (20 points);Review ?Evolution is Inevitable in Real Populations ?;Chapter 11. 3 in your textbook.;Also, web site: http://www.nfstc.org/pdi/Subject07/pdi_s07_m01_02.htm;(click the glasses for more help);We shall;simulate the frequency of two alleles in a population in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium;over several generations.;Instructions;This time the;beans will represent alleles (remember we carry two alleles for each trait or;gene, one from the father and one from the mother);The red bean;represents a dominant allele and the white bean represents a recessive allele. The;homozygous dominant individual is represented by 2 red beans, the homozygous;recessive individual is represented by 2 white beans, and heterozygous;individuals are represented by one red bean and one white bean.;Method;Count and set;aside 60 red beans and 40 white beans. Label;one paper bag male and the other paper bag female. Divide beans evenly into;bags (30 red beans and 20 white beans into each bag). You will grab one bean;from each bag for the allele combination in the F1 generation, for a total of 50 pairs (50 individuals) in the;F1 generation.;Preparation (5 points);Calculate the frequency of p (dominant allele - red) and;q (recessive allele ? white) in population (see textbook chapter 11. 3B).;p=red beans/total # beans;q=white beans/total # beans;p+q=?;2pq =?;P2=?;q2=?;What does p2, q2 and 2pq represent?;Write a hypothesis answering the following question;a.;If the population is in Hardy;Weinberg equilibrium, what would be the frequency of both alleles in the F1, F2;and F3 generations?;Experiment 1 (5;points);Remove one bean from each bag blindly and set the pair;aside. Repeat until all beans are paired. This represents one generation.;1.1 Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) =q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;P2 + 2pq + q2= 1;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total;number of alleles (beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;Return beans to bags and repeat the pairing two times, recording;p2, 2pq and q2each time.;1.2 Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) =q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;P2 + 2pq + q2= 1;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total;number of alleles (beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;1.3 Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) =q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;P2 + 2pq + q2= 1;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total;number of alleles (beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;Answer the;following questions;I.;How much did your experimental;data differ from the calculated data?;II.;Do you accept or reject your;hypothesis?;Experiment 2 (5 points);Remove one bean from each bag blindly and set the pair;aside. Repeat 10 times. This represents a loss of 10% of the population;(migration).;Now repeat steps of experiment 1.;2.1 Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;P2 + 2pq + q2= 1;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of;alleles (beans) =?;q =;(2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=;?;Repeat three times, each time removing 10% of the pairs;so remove 9 and 8 pairs respectively. Keep the changing total number of beans in;mind when calculating allele (bean) frequencies.;2.2;Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total;number of alleles (beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;2.3;Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;Calculate, p and q.;p + q =?;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total;number of alleles (beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;Answer the;following questions;I.;How much did your experimental;data differ from the calculated data?;II.;Do you accept or reject your;hypothesis?;III.;Under what conditions is an;allele within a population in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?;Experiment 3 (5 points);Remove one bean from each bag blindly and set the pair;aside. Repeat until all beans are paired.;Remove all white pairs (lost to predation) This represents natural;selection.;3.1 Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of;alleles (beans) =?;q =;(2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=;?;Write a;hypothesis answering the following question;What will happen to p and q if this selective pressure;repeats in the next generation?;Work through another generation. Divide remaining beans;equally and return to bags, and repeat the experiment.;3.2;Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of;alleles (beans) =?;q =;(2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=;?;Answer the;following questions;I.;How much did your experimental;data differ from the calculated data?;II.;Do you accept or reject your;hypothesis?;III.;How does natural selection;affect allele frequencies?;3. Summary (15 points);Answer the following question in full sentences, at least 150 to 200;words.;What did you;learn in this lab about the effects of population size, migration and natural;selection on allele frequencies in populations? How do allele;frequencies relate to evolution of;species?

 

Paper#62491 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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