Question;BIO/350 Human Biology-Week 7 Genetic Inheritance;GeneticInheritance;Margaret E. Vorndam;M.S.Version 42-0061-00-01;LAB REPORTASSISTANT;Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute;for;aformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperiment?squestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables;that;shouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.;Theintentistofacilitatestudents?writing;oflab reports by providing;this informationin an editable;filewhich can be sent to an instructor.;Data Table;1: PunnettSquare for F1 Cross ? Expected GeneticOutcomes;F1Parent, genes;(student to;fillin the blanks);alleles >;alleles v;F1 Parent, g;enes;(student fill;in blank);Data Table;2: Results of F1 Cross;Observed Phenotypes of F2Progeny;# green plants =;# white plants;=;Total # plants;Petri Dish 1 >;Petri Dish 2 >;Total;Data;Table 3: Dihybrid Cross in Corn;? Results of P Cross;P = purple;p = yellow;S = smooth, s =;wrinkled;(student;to fillin all blanks);Generation;Expected Alleles;Expected Alleles;P >;dominant x recessive;ppss;F1Progeny >;Frequency >;Data;Table 3A: PunnettSquare for;F1 Dihybrid Cross;Expected Genotypic Outcomes;(student;to fillin);Parent;1 F1? can produce;these gametes: (student to;fillin);Parent2F1 ?canproduce;these gametes;ShadedportionaboverepresentstheF2progeny;genotype and phenotype.Student;to fillin.;Data;Table 4: Dihybrid Cross in Corn;? Results of F1 Cross in F2 Progeny;Phenotype of;Progeny;(What they look like ? word description);Genetic Designations possible for this Phenotype;e.g., PPSS;Predicted Allelic;Frequency;(Expected Ratio);Number of this Phenotype Total Counted;100 (Observed;Number);Actual Allelic;Frequency;(Observed;Ratio)*;e.g., Yellow, wrinkled;ppss;* Actual;Allelic Frequency (Observed Ratio);= Number of this PhenotypeTotal;Counted ? 100 kernels total counted;Data Table 5:?2Goodness of Fit Test;for F Phenotypic Results from F Corn Cross;2 1;Phenotype;Description;of;F2Progeny from;Table 4;Observed;Number from Table 4;Observed;Ratio from Table 4;Expected Ratio from;Table 4;* Expected Number, calculated;** [Observed;No. ? Exp. No.]2;? Expected No.;e.g., Yellow, wrinkled;? Sum of column =;c2,Chi-square value;***;* Expected;Number, calculated;=? Sum of Observed;Number x Expected Ratiofor that;phenotype;** = (Observed;number ? Expected number, calculated);square;? Expected;Number, calculated;*** c2,Chi-squarevalue=?Sumof(Observednumber?Expectednumber,calculated);squared ? Expected;Number, calculated;Data Table 6: Summarizationofc2 Good Fit Results;for F Corn Cross;1;c2 value from Table;5 =;Value at 3 Degrees of Freedom that is closest to;c2;value =;What is the Fit Probability at the top of the column in which the value was;found?;What is the % of probability that the observed;results match the expected;results?;(MultiplyFit Probability;by 100);Reading at the top;of the Table, this Fit Probability indicates that the expected results;hypothesis is a;Good Fit Poor Fit;Circle the correct choice above;Exercise;1: F1 Hybrid Cross;A. Expectedphenotypicratioofgreentowhiteprogeny: CalculationofExpectedRatio;(Frequency) = = Total Number of (Color) Seedlings ? Total;of All Seedlings.;B. If 320 F2offspring;resulted from this F1cross, how;many would be green?;White?;DISCUSSION;A. Did the results support or refute;the hypothesis? Explain.;B. How;similar are the observed to;the expected results from the PunnettSquare?;C. If the results are not;similar, how might the differencebe explained?;D. WillamonohybridF1crossincornyieldthesameratioofexpectedphenotype;inprogenyas;for the tobacco seedlings? Why or why;not?;E. Ifavailable;compareyourF2seedlingdatatothoseofyourclassmates.Aretheoutcomeratios the same? Why might using a larger;number of seedlings to determine;this outcome be wise?;Exercise;2: Dihybrid GeneticCrosses;PROCEDURE;1. Basedonwhatyoucanconcludeaboutitsgeneticmakeupwhentoldthatthecornplant parentcross(P)picturedinFigure2isbetweenacompletelydominantplantandacompletely recessive plant;a. Constructandrecordahypothesisaboutwhatthegeneticmakeupandthefrequencies oftheallelesfortheF1 progenyplantsinthedihybridcrossofcornwillbe.Recordyour;hypothesis here;b. IftheseF1 progenyaremated,whatwillbetheresultingallelic;frequencyfortheF2;progeny? Record;this hypothesis here;RESULTS;A. Whatarethetwohypotheses;thatyoumadeabouttheallelicfrequenciesofprogenyproduced by;the crosses;P x P?;F1x F1?;B. Based;on;what you;know about phenotypes and Figure 2, for;the;P;generation, what is;the;corn plant genotype on;each;cob containing the;P;corn kernels?;One is completely dominant, so its genotype is;One;is completely recessive;so its genotype is.;C. WoulditmakeadifferenceintheoutcomeofthiscrossifthegenotypeofoneparentisPPss and the other is ppSS?;D. Fromthephenotype;ofthekernelsoneachPgeneration cobwhatwouldthepredicted;genotype of any F1plant;be?;E. Giventhe2nequationpredicthowmanydifferentgeneticoutcomeswillbepossiblefroman;F1cross;resultingin the F2generationin;a dihybrid corn cross.;F. IfaF2corncobresulting;fromthisF1crosscontained;563seeds,howmanyoftheseeds;would you expect to look like;the F1parent?;QUESTIONS;A. How;well do the predicted results match the actual results in Table 4?;B. Based;onthePunnettSquarepredictions,canastatementbemadeastowhetheryour hypotheses;are supported or rejected? Which and why?;C. DihybridF1 crossesresultinapredictableF2 progenyphenotypicfrequencythatholdstrue;universally. Based on the;Expected outcome, what is it?;D. If your;results are not as expected why;might there be differences?;E. Whatapplicationsmightthistypeofgeneticinvestigationhave?Howmighttheinformation;be applied medically?;Exercise;3: Chi-square and Hypothesis Testing;QUESTIONS;A. Whatcanbeconcluded;aboutyourprediction;ofexpectedF2 progenyphenotypicoutcome from;the F1cross? Was it close to the observed;outcome?;1;B. Howmightthec2testforfitnessbeusedinotherways?TryitonthetobaccoseedlingF;cross, for;instance.;C. Inatypicalcrosswhereaparentwithacompletelydominanttraitismatedwithaparent;exhibiting acompletelyrecessivetrait,whatistheexpectedgenotypicoutcomeandallelic frequency;for the F1progeny?;Give an example.;D. InatypicalcrosswherehybridF1parentsaremated,whatistheexpectedgenotypicoutcome and allelic frequency of the F2progeny?;Give an example.;E. FortheF2 progenyproducedfromatypicalF1 hybridmating,howmanytotallyrecessive individuals would be produced if;the progeny total;populationis six offspring?;What if the progeny populationwas;20?;50?;1,000?;F. Excluding;factorssuchassex-linkedgenes,incompletedominance;orepistasis,etc.,willthe above cross;results vary if differentorganisms;are used, such as dogs or tulips? Why or why;not?;G.;Howwillfactorssuchassex-linked genes,incompletedominance,orepistasis;etc.,affectthe;expected outcomes that;were;investigatedabove?
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