Question;GeneticInheritanceMargaret E. Vorndam, M.S.Version 42-0061-00-01LAB REPORTASSISTANTThisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute for aformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperiment?squestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables that shouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport. Theintentistofacilitatestudents?writing oflab reports by providing this informationin an editable filewhich can be sent to an instructor.Data Table 1: PunnettSquare for F1 Cross ? Expected GeneticOutcomesF1Parent, genes: (student to fillin the blanks)alleles >alleles vF1Parent, genes:__________(student fill in blank)Data Table 2: Results of F1 CrossObserved Phenotypes of F2Progeny# green plants =# white plants =Total # plantsPetri Dish 1 >Petri Dish 2 >TotalData Table 3: Dihybrid Cross in Corn ? Results of P CrossP = purple, p = yellowS = smooth, s = wrinkled(student to fillin all blanks)GenerationExpected AllelesExpected AllelesP >dominant x recessive_ppss_F1Progeny >Frequency >Data Table 3A: PunnettSquare for F1 Dihybrid CrossExpected Genotypic Outcomes(student to fill in)Parent 1 F1? can produce these gametes: (student to fillin)Parent2F1?canproduce these gametes:>ShadedportionaboverepresentstheF2progenygenotype and phenotype.Student to fill in.Data Table 4: Dihybrid Cross in Corn ? Results of F1 Cross in F2 ProgenyPhenotype ofProgeny(What they look like ? word description)Genetic Designations possible for this Phenotypee.g., PPSSPredictedAllelicFrequency(Expected Ratio)Number of this Phenotype Total Counted:100 (Observed Number)ActualAllelicFrequency(ObservedRatio)*e.g., Yellow, wrinkledppss* Actual Allelic Frequency (Observed Ratio)= Number of this PhenotypeTotal Counted ? 100 kernels total countedData Table 5:?2Goodness of Fit Test for F Phenotypic Results from F Corn Cross2 1PhenotypeDescriptionof F2Progeny from Table 4Observed Number from Table 4Observed Ratio from Table 4Expected Ratio from Table 4* Expected Number, calculated** [Observed No. ? Exp. No.]2? Expected No.e.g., Yellow, wrinkled? Sum of column =c2,Chi-square value ***>* Expected Number, calculated=? Sum of Observed Number x Expected Ratiofor that phenotype** = (Observed number ? Expected number, calculated) square? Expected Number, calculated*** c2,Chi-squarevalue=?Sumof(Observednumber?Expectednumber,calculated)squared ? Expected Number, calculatedData Table 6: Summarizationofc2 Good Fit Results for F Corn Cross1c2value from Table 5 =Value at 3 Degrees of Freedom that is closest toc2value =What is the Fit Probability at the top of the column in which the value was found?What is the % of probability that the observed results match the expected results?(MultiplyFit Probability by 100)Reading at the top of the Table, this Fit Probability indicates that the expected results hypothesis is aGood Fit Poor FitCircle the correct choice aboveExercise 1: F1 Hybrid CrossA. Expectedphenotypicratioofgreentowhiteprogeny: CalculationofExpectedRatio(Frequency) = = Total Number of (Color) Seedlings ? Total of All Seedlings.B. If 320 F2offspringresulted from this F1cross, how many would be green?White?DISCUSSIONA. Did the results support or refute the hypothesis? Explain.B. How similar are the observed to the expected results from the PunnettSquare?C. If the results are not similar, how might the differencebe explained?D. WillamonohybridF1crossincornyieldthesameratioofexpectedphenotype inprogenyas for the tobacco seedlings? Why or why not?E. Ifavailable, compareyourF2seedlingdatatothoseofyourclassmates.Aretheoutcomeratios the same? Why might using a larger number of seedlings to determine this outcome be wise?Exercise 2: Dihybrid GeneticCrossesPROCEDURE1. Basedonwhatyoucanconcludeaboutitsgeneticmakeupwhentoldthatthecornplant parentcross(P)picturedinFigure2isbetweenacompletelydominantplantandacompletely recessive plant,a. Constructandrecordahypothesis aboutwhatthegeneticmakeupandthefrequencies oftheallelesfortheF1 progenyplantsinthedihybridcrossofcornwillbe.Recordyour hypothesis here:b. IftheseF1 progenyaremated,whatwillbetheresultingallelic frequencyfortheF2progeny? Record this hypothesis here:RESULTSA. Whatarethetwohypothesesthatyoumadeabouttheallelicfrequenciesofprogenyproduced by the crosses:P x P?F1x F1?B. Based on what you know about phenotypes and Figure 2, for the P generation, what is the corn plant genotype on each cob containing the P corn kernels? One is completely dominant, so its genotype isOne is completely recessive, so its genotype is.C. WoulditmakeadifferenceintheoutcomeofthiscrossifthegenotypeofoneparentisPPss and the other is ppSS?D. FromthephenotypeofthekernelsoneachPgeneration cobwhatwouldthepredicted genotype of any F1plant be?E. Giventhe2nequationpredicthowmanydifferentgeneticoutcomeswillbepossiblefromanF1cross resultingin the F2generationin a dihybrid corn cross.F. IfaF2corncobresultingfromthisF1crosscontained563seeds,howmanyoftheseeds would you expect to look like the F1parent?QUESTIONSA. How well do the predicted results match the actual results in Table 4?B. Based onthePunnettSquarepredictions,canastatementbemadeastowhetheryour hypotheses are supported or rejected? Which and why?C. DihybridF1 crossesresultinapredictableF2 progenyphenotypicfrequencythatholdstrue universally. Based on the Expected outcome, what is it?D. If your results are not as expected why might there be differences?E. Whatapplicationsmightthistypeofgeneticinvestigationhave?Howmighttheinformation be applied medically?Exercise 3: Chi-square and Hypothesis TestingQUESTIONSA. Whatcanbeconcludedaboutyourprediction ofexpectedF2 progenyphenotypicoutcome from the F1cross? Was it close to the observed outcome?B. Howmightthec2testforfitnessbeusedinotherways?Tryitonthetobaccoseedling Fcross, for instance.C. Inatypicalcrosswhereaparentwithacompletelydominanttraitismatedwithaparent exhibiting acompletelyrecessivetrait,whatistheexpectedgenotypicoutcomeandallelic frequency for the F1progeny?Give an example.D. InatypicalcrosswherehybridF1parentsaremated,whatistheexpectedgenotypic outcome and allelic frequency of the F2progeny?Give an example.E. FortheF2 progenyproducedfromatypicalF1 hybridmating,howmanytotallyrecessive individuals would be produced if the progeny total populationis six offspring?What if the progeny populationwas 20?50?1,000?F. Excluding factorssuchassex-linkedgenes,incompletedominance orepistasis,etc.,willthe above cross results vary if differentorganisms are used, such as dogs or tulips? Why or why not?G. Howwillfactorssuchassex-linked genes,incompletedominance,orepistasis, etc.,affectthe expected outcomes that were investigatedabove?
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