Question;GeneticInheritance;Margaret E. Vorndam;M.S.Version 42-0061-00-01;LAB REPORTASSISTANT;Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute;for;aformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperiment?squestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables;that;shouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.;Theintentistofacilitatestudents?writing;oflab reports by providing;this informationin an editable;filewhich can be sent to an instructor.;Data Table;1: PunnettSquare for F1 Cross ? Expected GeneticOutcomes;F1Parent;genes: (student to;fillin the blanks);alleles >;alleles v;F1 Parent;genes:__________(student fill;in blank);Data Table;2: Results of F1 Cross;Observed Phenotypes of F2Progeny;# green plants =;# white plants;=;Total # plants;Petri Dish 1 >;Petri Dish 2 >;Total;Data;Table 3: Dihybrid Cross in Corn;? Results of P Cross;P = purple, p = yellow;S = smooth, s = wrinkled;(student;to fillin all blanks);Generation;Expected Alleles;Expected Alleles;P >;dominant x recessive;ppss;F1Progeny;Frequency >;Data;Table 3A: PunnettSquare for;F1 Dihybrid Cross;Expected Genotypic Outcomes;(student to fill;in);Parent 1 F1? can produce;these gametes: (student to;fillin);Parent2F1 ?canproduce;these gametes;ShadedportionaboverepresentstheF2progeny;genotype and phenotype.Student to fill;in.;Data;Table 4: Dihybrid Cross in Corn;? Results of F1 Cross in F2 Progeny;Phenotype of;Progeny;(What they;look like ? word;description);Genetic Designations possible for;this Phenotype;e.g., PPSS;Predicted Allelic;Frequency;(Expected Ratio);Number;of this Phenotype Total Counted;100 (Observed;Number);Actual Allelic;Frequency;(Observed;Ratio)*;e.g., Yellow;wrinkled;ppss;* Actual Allelic Frequency (Observed Ratio);=;Number of this PhenotypeTotal;Counted ? 100 kernels total counted;Data Table 5:?2Goodness of Fit Test for F Phenotypic Results from F Corn;Cross;2 1;Phenotype;Description;of F2Progeny;from Table 4;Observed Number from Table 4;Observed Ratio;from Table 4;Expected Ratio;from Table 4;*;Expected Number, calculated;** [Observed No. ? Exp. No.]2;? Expected No.;e.g., Yellow;wrinkled;? Sum;of column =;c2,Chi-square value ***;* Expected;Number, calculated;=? Sum of Observed Number x Expected Ratiofor;that phenotype;** = (Observed;number ? Expected number, calculated);square;?;Expected Number, calculated;***;c2,Chi-squarevalue=?Sumof(Observednumber?Expectednumber,calculated);squared ?;Expected Number, calculated;Data Table 6: Summarizationofc2 Good;Fit Results for F Corn Cross;1;c2 value from Table;5 =;Value at 3 Degrees;of Freedom that is closest toc2;value =;What is the Fit Probability at the top of the column in which the value;was found?;What is the % of probability that the;observed results match the expected;results?;(MultiplyFit Probability;by 100);Reading at;the top of the Table, this Fit Probability indicates that;the expected results hypothesis is a;Good;Fit Poor Fit;Circle the correct choice above;Exercise;1: F1 Hybrid Cross;A. Expectedphenotypicratioofgreentowhiteprogeny: CalculationofExpectedRatio;(Frequency) = = Total Number of (Color) Seedlings ? Total;of All Seedlings.;B. If 320 F2offspringresulted;from this F1cross, how many would;be green?;White?;DISCUSSION;A. Did the results support or refute the hypothesis?;Explain.;B. How;similar are the observed to;the expected results from the PunnettSquare?;C. If the results are not;similar, how might the differencebe explained?;D. WillamonohybridF1crossincornyieldthesameratioofexpectedphenotype;inprogenyas;for the tobacco seedlings? Why or why;not?;E. Ifavailable;compareyourF2seedlingdatatothoseofyourclassmates.Aretheoutcomeratios the same? Why might using a larger;number of seedlings to determine;this outcome be wise?;Exercise;2: Dihybrid GeneticCrosses;PROCEDURE;1.;Basedonwhatyoucanconcludeaboutitsgeneticmakeupwhentoldthatthecornplant parentcross(P)picturedinFigure2isbetweenacompletelydominantplantandacompletely recessive plant;a. Constructandrecordahypothesis;aboutwhatthegeneticmakeupandthefrequencies oftheallelesfortheF1 progenyplantsinthedihybridcrossofcornwillbe.Recordyour;hypothesis here;b.;IftheseF1;progenyaremated,whatwillbetheresultingallelic;frequencyfortheF2;progeny?;Record this hypothesis;here;RESULTS;A. Whatarethetwohypothesesthatyoumadeabouttheallelicfrequenciesofprogenyproduced by;the crosses;P x P?;F1x F1?;B. Based on what you;know about phenotypes and Figure 2, for;the;P;generation, what is;the;corn plant genotype on;each;cob containing the;P;corn kernels?;One is completely dominant, so its genotype is;One is completely recessive, so its genotype is.;C. WoulditmakeadifferenceintheoutcomeofthiscrossifthegenotypeofoneparentisPPss and the other is ppSS?;D. FromthephenotypeofthekernelsoneachPgeneration cobwhatwouldthepredicted;genotype of any F1plant;be?;E. Giventhe2nequationpredicthowmanydifferentgeneticoutcomeswillbepossiblefroman;F1cross;resultingin the F2generationin;a dihybrid corn cross.;F. IfaF2corncobresultingfromthisF1crosscontained563seeds,howmanyoftheseeds;would you expect to look like;the F1parent?;QUESTIONS;A. How well do the predicted;results match the actual results in Table 4?;B. Based;onthePunnettSquarepredictions,canastatementbemadeastowhetheryour hypotheses;are supported or rejected? Which and why?;C. DihybridF1;crossesresultinapredictableF2;progenyphenotypicfrequencythatholdstrue;universally. Based on the;Expected outcome, what is it?;D. If your results;are not as expected why might;there be differences?;E. Whatapplicationsmightthistypeofgeneticinvestigationhave?Howmighttheinformation;be applied medically?;Exercise;3: Chi-square and Hypothesis Testing;QUESTIONS;A. Whatcanbeconcludedaboutyourprediction;ofexpectedF2;progenyphenotypicoutcome from;the F1cross? Was;it close to the observed outcome?;1;B. Howmightthec2testforfitnessbeusedinotherways?Tryitonthetobaccoseedling;F;cross, for;instance.;C. Inatypicalcrosswhereaparentwithacompletelydominanttraitismatedwithaparent;exhibiting acompletelyrecessivetrait,whatistheexpectedgenotypicoutcomeandallelic frequency;for the F1progeny?;Give an example.;D. InatypicalcrosswherehybridF1parentsaremated,whatistheexpectedgenotypic;outcome and allelic frequency;of the F2progeny?;Give an example.;E. FortheF2 progenyproducedfromatypicalF1 hybridmating,howmanytotallyrecessive individuals would be produced if;the progeny total;populationis six offspring?;What if the progeny;populationwas 20?;50?;1,000?;F. Excluding;factorssuchassex-linkedgenes,incompletedominance;orepistasis,etc.,willthe above cross;results vary if differentorganisms;are used, such as dogs or tulips? Why or why;not?;G. Howwillfactorssuchassex-linked genes,incompletedominance,orepistasis;etc.,affectthe;expected outcomes that;were;investigatedabove?
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