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Evolution and Natural Selection Lab

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Question;Evolution and Natural Selection Lab (50 points);Type your results and responses to questions in this report;and submit. Please answer all questions in full sentences.;Materials: Bag of 15;bean soup (dry beans), cup, 2 Paper;lunch bags, paper and pencil.;1.;We;shall simulate genetic drift and effects of a bottleneck on genetic drift in;this simulation. (15 points);Review ?Evolution Occurs in;Several Ways?, Chapter 11.6 in your textbook.;Instructions;Count out 25 speckled beans, 25 black beans, 25 white beans and 25 red;beans (it is easiest if you choose beans of the same size and put in container.;The beans represent different alleles (Unit 3). This means each type of bean;makes up 25% of the total number of beans (or alleles) (25/100 = 0.25).;Write two hypotheses answering the two questions below (5;points);a.;How would the ratio of bean phenotypes change if;you randomly pick 40 beans from the container?;Will the ratio change significantly in each repetition (generation)?;b.;How would the ratio of bean phenotypes change if;you only pick 10 beans from the container?;Will the ratio change significantly in each repetition (generation)?;Method;Now take 40 beans from the counter and count the different phenotypes;black, white, red and speckled. Write the results in the data chart, then;return the beans to the container, shake to mix, and repeat the experiment two;more times. Next, take only 10 beans from the container. Count the different beans;and add the data to the chart. Return the beans to the container and repeat;three more times. Complete the data chart below.;Results (5 points);Large;Sample (40 beans);Bean;(Phenotype);Original Population;Exp #1;Exp #2;Exp #3;#;%;#;%;#;%;#;%;Small Sample (10 beans);BLR;(Phenotype);Original Population;Exp #1;Exp #2;Exp #3;#;%;#;%;#;%;#;%;Were your hypotheses correct?;Answer the following questions (5 points);I.;What was the range of ratios of bean phenotypes;in the large sample? In the small sample?;II.;How would genetic drift affect the gene pool in;a genetic bottleneck?;III.;Could genetic drift lead to evolution of new;species? Consider ratios of phenotypes of each small sample. Under which condition;would this change lead to speciation?;2.;Simulation;of Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (20 points);Review ?Evolution is Inevitable in Real Populations ?, Chapter 11. 3 in;your textbook.;Also;web site: http://www.nfstc.org/pdi/Subject07/pdi_s07_m01_02.htm;(click the glasses for more help);We shall simulate the frequency of;two alleles in a population in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium over several;generations.;Instructions;This time the beans will represent;alleles (remember we carry two alleles for each trait or gene, one from the;father and one from the mother);The red bean represents a dominant;allele and the white bean represents a recessive allele. The homozygous;dominant individual is represented by 2 red beans, the homozygous recessive;individual is represented by 2 white beans, and heterozygous individuals are;represented by one red bean and one white bean.;Method;Count and set aside 60 red beans;and 40 white beans. Label one paper bag;male and the other paper bag female. Divide beans evenly into bags (30 red;beans and 20 white beans into each bag). You will grab one bean from each bag;for the allele combination in the F1 generation, for a total of 50 pairs (50 individuals) in the;F1 generation.;Preparation (5 points);Calculate;the frequency of p (dominant allele - red) and q (recessive allele ? white) in;population (see textbook chapter 11. 3B).;p=red beans/total # beans;q=white beans/total # beans;p+q=?;2pq =?;P2=?;q2=?;What;does p2, q2 and 2pq represent?;Write a hypothesis answering the following question;a.;If the population is in Hardy Weinberg;equilibrium, what would be the frequency of both alleles in the F1, F2 and F3;generations?;Experiment 1 (5 points);Remove one bean from each bag blindly and set the pair aside. Repeat;until all beans are paired. This represents one generation.;1.1 Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white;pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;P2 + 2pq + q2= 1;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles;(beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;Return beans to bags and repeat the pairing two times, recording p2;2pq and q2each time.;1.2 Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white;pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;P2 + 2pq + q2= 1;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles;(beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;1.3 Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white;pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;P2 + 2pq + q2= 1;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles;(beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;Answer the following questions;I.;How much did your experimental data differ from;the calculated data?;II.;Do you accept or reject your hypothesis?;Experiment 2 (5 points);Remove;one bean from each bag blindly and set the pair aside. Repeat 10 times. This;represents a loss of 10% of the population (migration).;Now repeat steps of experiment 1.;2.1 Count;Red pairs;(dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs;(recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs;(heterozygous) = 2pq.;P2 +;2pq + q2= 1;Calculate p = (2x;red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;Repeat three times, each time removing 10% of the pairs, so remove 9 and;8 pairs respectively. Keep the changing;total number of beans in mind when calculating allele (bean) frequencies.;2.2;Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;Calculate;p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;2.3;Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;Calculate;p and q. p + q =?;Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles;(beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;Answer the following questions;I.;How much did your experimental data differ from;the calculated data?;II.;Do you accept or reject your hypothesis?;III.;Under what conditions is an allele within a;population in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?;Experiment 3 (5 points);Remove;one bean from each bag blindly and set the pair aside. Repeat until all beans;are paired. Remove all white pairs (lost;to predation) This represents natural selection.;3.1 Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;Calculate p = (2x;red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;Write a hypothesis answering the;following question;What will happen to p and q if this selective pressure repeats in the;next generation?;Work through another generation. Divide remaining beans equally and;return to bags, and repeat the experiment.;3.2;Count;Red pairs (dominant homozygous) = p2;White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2;Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.;Calculate p = (2x;red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) =?;q = (2x white pairs + red-white;pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?;p+q=?;Answer the following questions;I.;How much did your experimental data differ from;the calculated data?;II.;Do you accept or reject your hypothesis?;III.;How does natural selection affect allele frequencies?;3.;Summary;(15 points);Answer;the following question in full sentences, at least 150 to 200 words.;What did you learn in this lab;about the effects of population size, migration and natural selection on allele;frequencies in populations? How do allele frequencies relate to evolution of species?

 

Paper#62568 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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