Question;1. Which form of the exam do you have?A. Form AB. Form B2. The HIV virus that causes AIDS specifically attacks and kills helper T cells. This weakens theimmune system because helper T cells:A. directly destroy cells infected with HIVB. roam the body looking for "invaders"C. turn on (activates) the antibody mediated and the cell-mediated defense systems in thebody.D. produce antibodiesE. turn off the immune response3. Choose the INCORRECT statement.A. The antibody-mediated immune response is directed at antigens that are outside ofcells, free in body fluids.B. The cell-mediated immune response plays a role in the rejection of organ transplantsC. A macrophage presents the antigen to the appropriate helper T cell.D. Antibodies are effective against viruses that have inserted their genetic material intothe host cell chromosome.E. Suppressor T cells shut down the immune response after the invader (antigen) hasbeen eliminated from the body.4. Which part of a virus comes from a previous host cell? The:A. genetic informationB. the protein coat (capsid)C. the envelopeD. none of the above5. Indicate the choice that contains only CORRECT statements.Statements:1. Antibodies are specific to one particular antigen.2. Antibodies are held within the cell that produces them.3. Antibodies may inactivate (neutralize) a toxin produced by a bacterium.4. Antibodies are produced by macrophages.5. Antibodies can only be effective against antigens that are free in the bloodstream (notwithin cells).Choices:A. 1, 2, 3B. 2, 3, 4C. 3, 4, 5D. 1, 3, 5E. 1, 3, 416. The immune system helps protect us against cancer because _____________ attack and killcancerous cells that develop.A. helper T cellsB. B cellsC. cytotoxic T cellsD. all of the above7. How do viruses gain entry to a host cell?A.by binding to a receptor site on the host cellB.by binding to an antibody site on the host cellsC.by dissolving a piece of the host cell membraneD.all of the above8. Choose the INCORRECT STATEMENT about cervical cancer:A. The human papilloma virus (HPV) is thought to be an important cause of cervicalcancerB. A womans risk of getting cervical cancer generally increases with the number of(male) sexual partners she has had.C. A womans risk of getting cervical cancer is lowered if she and her partner(s)consistently use a barrier means of contraception, such as a condom or diaphragm.D. It can increase a womans risk of having an ectopic pregnancy.E. It can be detected with a Pap test.9. Your brother confides in you that he has painful, fluid-filled blister-like sores on his penis.Which of the following is most likely to be the cause?A. syphilisB. gonorrheaC. chlamydiaD. genital wartsE. genital herpes10. Jennifer is a 28 year-old woman who is having difficulty getting pregnant. After many testsit is determined that the reason for this problem is that she has scar tissue blocking her oviducts(fallopian tubes). The STD that is most likely to have caused this is.A. syphilisB. gonorrheaC. chlamydiaD. genital herpesE. genital warts211.Which of the following directly activates both the cell-mediated immune response and theantibody-mediated immune response?A. memory B cellsB. helper T cellsC. plasma cellsD. cytotoxic T cellsE. suppressor T cells12. An antigen is a:A. cell that produces antibodiesB. receptor on the surface of a lymphocyte that recognizes invadersC. memory cell that causes a quick response to an invader when it is encountered asecond timeD. a large molecule on the surface of an invader that triggers an immune responseE. none of the above13. Your friend Joe has been dating Claudia and they have been sexually active for three months.Joe had never been sexually active before he met Claudia. Joe confides in you that he has noticeda wart forming on his penis. He has asked Claudia whether she has genital warts. She said, "No.I've definitely never seen anything remotely resembling a wart on my body." He asks you wherethey could have come from. You correctly respond.A. You probably got warts from using the dirty urinal in the men's room of the gas stationwhere you work.B. The organism that causes warts is so common that you could have gotten it anywhere.C. Claudia is obviously lying. She would have seen a wart.D. In women warts often form within the vagina or on the cervix, and so Claudia may notrealize that she has genital warts.E. none of the above14. How does the virus make new genetic information and proteins?A.It combines with the host cell DNA.B.It never does reproduce, it only grows larger.C.It uses the host cell structures.D.Once inside the host cell it is able to reproduce sexually.15. Your immune system does not usually attack cells belonging in your body because:A. suppressor T cells prevent the attackB. the antigens on your body cells block the attackC. antibodies paralyze helper T cellsD. memory cells identify and protect body cellsE. your own body cells have molecules on their surfaces that identify them as belongingin the body316. In which choice are all the STDs usually curable with an antibiotic?A.herpes, chlamydia, gonorrheaB.chlamydia, syphilis, genital wartsC.chlamydia, herpes, syphilisD.genital warts, gonorrhea, syphilisE.chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis17. Below you will find a series of steps in the triggering of the immune response. Indicate thechoice that places the steps in the CORRECT order.Steps:a. a virgin (cytotoxic) T cell is activatedb. a macrophage encounters an invader (something that is not recognized as belongingin the body)c. a helper T cell is activatedd. a suppressor T cell becomes activee. a cytotoxic T cell destroys the invading cellChoices:A. a, b, c, d, eB. b, c, a, e, dC. d, b, a, c, eD. b, a, c, d, eE. c, a, c, e, d18. Choose the INCORRECT statement:A. If the bacteria that cause chlamydia are transferred to the eyes, it can cause blindness.B. Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis can be cured with antibiotics.C. Most women with chlamydia have no symptoms.D. A man with gonorrhea must ejaculate in order to spread the infectious organism to apartner.E. HPV, which causes genital warts, can spread over the entire anal genital area.19. Which of the following STDs is INCORRECTLY paired with a means of diagnosis that canbe used at some point in the progression of the disease?A. syphilis -- blood testB. gonorrhea -- blood testC. chlamydia -- urine testD. chlamydia -- smear of cells from infected areaE. herpes -- blood test420. Your cousin Masoud needs a kidney transplant. The doctors explain that if the tissue type ofthe donor kidney doesnt match Masouds tissue type, that the ________________ of theimmune system would attack and kill the donor kidney, causing the organ to be rejected.A. B cellsB. plasma cellsC. antibodiesD. effector cytotoxic T cellsE. helper T cells21. Therefore, to reduce the possibility of organ rejection, the doctors test all of Masouds closerelatives to see whether they would be suitable donors. The doctors are looking for a relative:A. whose tissues have similar self markers (MHC markers) to those on Masouds cells.B. who lacks antibodies to Masouds tissuesC. who has suppressor T cells that will suppress the immune response against the donorkidneyD. lacks macrophagesE. all of the above22. Choose the INCORRECT statement:A. Genital warts can take months to appear.B. The same virus that causes cold sores can be transmitted to the genital area of anotherperson through oral sex.C. Herpes can only be spread when there are symptoms..23. Damage to nerve tissue such as the optic nerve and brain occur during which stage ofsyphilis?A.firstB.secondC.thirdD.it never occurs in syphilis24. Choose the INCORRECT statement.A. A virus infects only a particular type of host cell. This specificity occurs because thevirus genetic material must be compatible with the host cell genetic material for the viral geneticmaterial to be inserted into the host cell chromosome.B. Viruses can be shed without causing disease symptoms.C. Many viruses can enter a latent stage during which they dont cause diseasesymptoms. During the latent stage the viral genetic material has been inserted into the host cellchromosome.D. Some viruses cause cancer.525. Choose the INCORRECT statement:A. Chlamydia can lead to sterility in either sex.B. HPVcan cause pelvic inflammatory disease.C. Cold sores are caused by a herpes virus.D. The bacterium that causes syphilis can cross the placenta and infect a fetus growing inthe uterus if the mother has syphilis26. Which statement about genital warts is INCORRECT?A. The warts grow faster in a woman who is using a contraceptive containingprogesterone.B. You are not contagious until the warts appearC. The warts may take weeks to months to appearD. The warts are extremely contagiousE. The warts are caused by a virus27.What is the purpose of the antigen that is displayed on the surface of a macrophage?A. It indicates that the invader has been captured and the immune response can be shutdown.B. It secretes antibodies.C. It fits in a receptor on the invader and neutralizes it (prevents it from making yousick).D. It identifies the target that the immune response should be directed against.E. It causes the target to burst.28. When bacteria infect an animal, the number of bacteria in the body increases gradually. Agraph of the growth of a bacterial population is a smoothly increasing curve as shown in graph 1.A viral infection shows a different pattern. For a while there is no evidence of infection, and thenthere is a sudden increase in the number of viruses. The number stays constant for a time, thenthere is another sudden increase. The curve of viral population growth looks like a series ofsteps, as shown in graph b. Which of the following correctly explains the difference in thepatterns of growth of bacteria and viruses?BacteriaVirusA. Viruses need to rest between division cycles, but bacteria do not need rest.B. Bacteria divide continuously with each cell producing two new cells. Viruses replicatewithin a cell and hundreds or thousands can be released at once.C. The food supply to fuel division for bacteria is always available. The food supply forviruses is only available during limited times, and these are the times when viruses replicate.D. None of the above.629. When you move into the dorms, you learn that there is a girl on the floor who has a herpesinfection in her throat. Others on the floor are afraid that they might catch herpes from using thetoilet seat if she has used it before them. You correctly explain:A. You might, but it would be oral herpes (a fever blister), like she has, and 80% ofAmericans have that.B. You might. You better watch to see if she was in there before you.C. Even if you do get it, youll have obvious symptoms, and it is easily cured with anantibiotic.D. The only way that could happen is if she licked the toilet seat when she was sheddingviruses, placing viruses on the toilet seat. Of course, you would also have to sit on the seatimmediately afterward30.The reason that you usually only get chickenpox once is that:A. Antibodies remain forever and immediately neutralize the chickenpox virus if youare ever exposed to it again.B. Suppressor T cells form that immediately suppress the infection if you are everexposed to the virus againC. Chickenpox antigens are only effective once.D. Macrophages can no longer recognize the chickenpox virus as an invader.E. Memory B cells and memory T cells formed that mount an immune response veryquickly if you are ever exposed to the virus again.
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