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bio assignment questions




Question;1) An open label study (where participant;are aware of the treatment they are taking) is conducted to assess the time;relief following treatment in patients with arthritis. The following linear;regression equations are estimated relating time to pain relief measured in;minutes (dependent variable) to participant?s age (in years) gender (coded 1;for males and 0 for females) and severity of diseases (a score ranging from 0;t0 100 with higher scores indicative of more severe arthritis.;Time to pain Relief = - 24.2 +0.9 Age;Time to pain Relief= 11.8 +19.3 male Gender;Time to pain Relief= 3.8 +0.4 severity;Time to pain Relief = -19.8 +0.50 Age +10.9;male Gender +0.2 severity;A);What is expected time to pain;relief for a male following treatment?;B);What is the expected time to;pain relief for a participant aged 50 following treatment;2) A study is conducted in patients with;HIV. The primary outcome is CD4 cell count which is a measure of the stage of;the disease. Lower CD4 counts are associated with more advanced disease. The;investigators are interested in the association between vitamins and mineral;supplements and CD4 count. A multiple regression analysis is performed relating;CD4 count to use of supplements (coded as 1=yes, 0=no) and to duration of HIV;in years (i.e. the number of years between the diagnosis of HIV and the study;date) for the analysis, y=CD4 count.;Y=302 +15.1 supplements- 18.6 duration of HIV.;A) What is the expected CD4 count for a patient taking supplements who;has had HIV for 2.5 years.;B) What is the expected CD4 count for a;patient not taking supplement who was diagnosed with HIV at study enrollment?;C);What is the expected CD4 count for a patient not taking supplements who has had;HIV for 2.5 years;3) A randomized trial is conducted to;evaluate the efficacy of a new cholesterol lowering medication. The primary;outcome is incident coronary artery disease. Participants are free of coronary;artery disease at the start of the study and randomized to receive either the;new medication or a placebo. Participants are followed for a maximum of 10;years for the development of coronary artery disease.;The following data are;Number participants;number with coronary artery disease;Cholesterol medication 400;28;Placebo;400 42;A);Compute the Relative Risk of;coronary artery disease in patients receiving the new medication as compared to;placebo.;Relative Risk;=;B);Compute the Odd ratio of;coronary artery disease in patients receiving the new medications as compared;to placebo;Odds Ratio =;4) A national survey is conducted to assess;the association between hypertension and stroke in persons over 75 years of age;with a family history of stroke. Development of stroke is monitored over a 5;years follow up period. The data are summarized below and the numbers are in;millions.;Developed stroke did not;develop stroke;Hypertension 12 37;No Hypertension 4;26;A);Compute the cumulative;incidence of stroke in persons over 75 years of age;Cumulative;Incidence=;B);Compute the Relative Risk of;stroke in hypertensive as compared to non- hypertensive persons;Relative;Risk=;C);Compute the Odds Ratio of;stroke in hypertensive as compared to non- hypertensive persons;Odds Ratio;=;5) A small cohort study is conducted in 13;patients with an aggressive cellular disorder linked cancer. The clinical;courses of the patients are depicted graphically below.;A) Compute the prevalence of cancer at 12 months;Prevalence =;B Compute the cumulative;Incidence of cancer at 12 months;Cumulative incidence 12 mths;=;C);Compute the incidence rate (per month) of death;Incidence Rate =;--------------per 1,000 person months.


Paper#62687 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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