Question;Lesson 7 LaboratoryPart I: Answer the following questions utilizing the virtual laboratory simulation: TYPE ANSWERS HERE 1. Recessive alleles are represented by:a. an upper case letterb. a lower case letterc. it does not matter what type of letter is used 2. If a fruit fly is heterozygous for eye color (Bb) what alleles will be present in his sperm?a. 50% will contain ?B? and 50% will contain ?b?b. 100% will contain ?b?c. 25% will contain ?B? and 75% will contain ?b?c. 100% will contain ?B? 3. In fruit flies, black eye color is dominant over sepia. Using the letter B to represent eye color, what is the genotype of a heterozygous black eyed fly?a. BBb. bbc. Bbd. BBbb 4. All of the offspring of two black eyed flies are also black. What can you conclude about the genotypes of the parent flies?a. They are both heterozygousb. They are both homozygous dominantc. They are both homozygous recessived. You cannot conclude anything definitively about the parental genotypes 5. Some of the offspring of two black eyed flies have sepia eyes. What can you conclude about the genotypes of the parent flies?a. They are both heterozygousb. They are both homozygous dominantc. They are both homozygous recessived. You cannot conclude anything definitively about the parental genotypes Part II: Follow the instructions in the Question column to complete the virtual lab scenarios and record your data. Complete all ten scenarios and record your results in Table 1 below. When you record a ratio, whether it is genotypic or phenotypic ratio, always record the most dominant characteristic first, followed by the recessive. For example, when recording genotypic ratios: 1) If your offspring genotypes include 1 GG, 2 Gg, and 1 gg, the ratio would be: 1 GG: 2 Gg: 1 gg 2) If your offspring genotypes include 2 GG and 2 Gg, the ratio would be: 2 GG: 2 Gg or 1:1 in the reduced form 3) If your offspring genotypes are 4 gg, then the ratio would be written as: 4 ggWhen you record phenotypic ratios for a monohybrid cross, there are only two possible phenotypes - either the dominant phenotype or the recessive phenotype. So you do not need to indicate the phenotype, simply put the dominant # first, followed by the recessive #: 4) If your offspring phenotypes are 3 dominant and 1 recessive, the ratio is: 3:1 5) If your offspring phenotypes are 4 dominant and 0 recessive, the ratio is: 4:0 6) If your offspring phenotypes are 0 dominant and 4 recessive, the ratio is: 0:4 Table 1:Scenario # Genotype of Parent I Genotype of Parent II Genotypic Ratio of Offspring Phenotypic Ratio of Offspring1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Part III: Real world application. Use the information presented below to answer the questions concerning cystic fibrosis.Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that affects many different parts of the body. There are approximately 30,000 Americans with cystic fibrosis. The most serious problem is the production of extremely thick, sticky mucus that clogs up the bronchial tubes in the lungs and the passageways in the pancreas (remember, the pancreas makes digestive juices that help break down food). This causes malnutrition, diabetes, lung infections, and difficulty getting enough oxygen to the body. Most people with cystic fibrosis die in their 20s or 30s from lung failure.Cystic fibrosis is caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. This gene provides the code for a protein that helps produce digestive juices and mucus. Cystic fibrosis is a recessive genetic disease. The normal allele can be represented by ?G? and the mutant allele can be represented by ?g?. TYPE ANSWERS HERE11. If you have the cystic fibrosis disease, what is your genotype? 12. Approximately one in 25 Americans has a mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. Does this mean that all of those people will have the disease? Explain your answer by describing the possible genotypes of people that carry a mutant allele. Cindy and Jonathan were married one year ago and are thinking of starting a family. Neither has cystic fibrosis. However, Cindy?s younger sister is very sick with cystic fibrosis. This has made Cindy and Jonathan worried that a baby they have together may be born with cystic fibrosis. TYPE ANSWERS HERE13. Cindy?s parents do not have cystic fibrosis. Knowing that Cindy?s sister has the disease, what must Cindy?s parents? genotypes be? CINDY?S MOM:CINDY?S DAD:14. Clearly explain how you figured out their genotype. 15. What kinds of kids could Cindy?s parents have? (fill in the Punnett square by typing the parent possible alleles in the gray boxes and the offspring?s genotypes in the white boxes)? 16. What are the chances that one of their kids is GG? ________% 17. What are the chances that one of their kids is Gg? ________% 18. What are the chances that one of their kids is gg? ________% Cindy and Jonathan decide to get genetic testing to see whether either of them carries a mutant cystic fibrosis gene. Remember, Cindy and Jonathan do not have cystic fibrosis. TYPE ANSWERS HERE19. The results come back saying that Cindy is heterozygous. What is her genotype? _____ 20. Jonathan?s results say that he is homozygous. What is his genotype? 21. What are the chances that Cindy?s and Jonathan?s kids will have cystic fibrosis. 22. Explain completely how you know. Use a Punnett square if that helps you show the possibilities but remember to explain your conclusions in writing.
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