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Seaport ECOL100 Final exam

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Question;1. The system responsible for defense against disease and;harmful substances is the;circulatory system;endocrine system;immune system;excretory system;skeletal system;2. Human inputs of outdoor air pollutants occur mostly;in rural areas;in the mountains;along the oceans;in urban areas;in the deserts;3. Of the following materials, the MOST difficult to recycle is;glass;plastic;paper;aluminum;cardboard;4. Which of the following is the LEAST desirable from an;environmental standpoint?;repair;reduce;reuse;compost;recycle;5. Photochemical smog is formed when primary pollutants;interact with;sunlight;water vapor;sulfur dioxide;oxygen;carbon;6. Four of the following are means of transmitting the HIV;virus from person to person, one is not such a means. Choose the one that is;not.;unsafe sex;sneezing and coughing;exposure to unsafe blood;sharing needles by drug users;infected mothers passing the virus to offspring before or during birth;7. Most of earth's weather occurs in the;troposphere;thermosphere;mesosphere;stratosphere;tropopause;8. Approximately 70% of the U.S.'s electronic waste (ewaste);ends up;buried or incinerated;recycled;shipped to India;shipped to China;shipped to Africa;9. Which of the following is NOT a major recent trend in urban;population dynamics;numbers and sizes of urban areas is growing very fast;poverty is becoming;increasingly urbanized mostly in developing countries;urban growth is much lower in developed countries than developing;countries;proportion of world population living in urban areas is increasing;decline in hypercities;10. Chlorofluorocarbons are;nontoxic;corrosive;odorous;flammable;reactive;11. Which of the following is not a harmful;effect of plastic bags;spread malaria;kills plants;kills animals;kills marine animals;none of these;12. Compost is MOST accurately described as;manure;landfill byproducts;pure garbage;soil conditioner;and organic fertilizer;humus;13. When more roads are built, more cars are sold. Then more;roads are built. This interaction exemplifies a(n);positive feedback loop;negative feedback loop;synergistic interaction;antagonistic interaction;negative, synergistic interaction;14. The MOST energy-efficient beverage container on the market;is;reusable glass;recyclable aluminum;stainless steel;recyclable plastic;carton;15. In cultural eutrophication, fish die from;acid deposition;suffocation due to depletion;of dissolved oxygen;toxic substances in the water;increased sediment reducing habitats;loss of space;16. Typical rain in the eastern US is at least _____ times more;acidic than what normal precipitation should be;2;5;10;20;50;17. Refillable glass and PET beverage containers can be used;times before they become too damaged and need to be recycled.;3;5;7;10;15;18. A good indicator of water quality is the number of;ducks;fish;turtles;coliform bacteria;protozoa;19. The Lyme disease bacterium is passed onto humans directly;from;foxes;deer;white mice;filed mice;ticks;20. ________relates to the amount of a potentially toxic;substance as it passes through food chains and webs.;Toxicity;Biomagnification;Persistence;Response;Dose;21. What do all volatile organic compounds have in common?;All are carbon based.;All are produced from manmade sources.;All are emitted fro processing and/or burning fossil fuels.;All are colorless, odorless reactive gases.;All are naturally occurring and odorless gases found in rocks and;vegetation.;22. Environmentalists say that the best way to handle soft;drink and beer containers is to;use landfills;use paper bottles;use stainless steel cans;use reusable glass bottles;and PET containers and recycle;bury them;23. The five main types of hazards include all of the;following, EXCEPT;biological hazards;natural hazards;economic hazards;physical hazards;chemical hazards;24. The effects of ozone depletion on humans includes all of the;following, EXCEPT;more cataracts;suppression of immune system;more brain cancers;worse sunburns;more skin cancers;25. The atmospheric layer containing 75% of the mass of earth's;air is the;thermosphere;mesosphere;stratosphere;troposphere;tropopause;26. The process by which individuals and groups tries to;influence or control the policies and actions of governments is known as;lobbying;policy making;politics;all of these answers;none of these answers;27. A lawsuits filed by a corporation or developer against;citizens who publicly criticize a business for an activity is called;a frivolous lawsuit;a nuisance lawsuit;a statutory suit;a regulatory suit;a SLAPP;28. Countries whose environment has been severely degraded may;be characterized by any of the following, EXCEPT;deterioration of vital infrastructure;increased immigration;allegiance to warlords;breakdown of law and order;violent internal conflict or civil war;29. Levying taxes on each unit of pollution discharged into the;air or water is an example of;tradable pollution rights;charging user fees;regulation;green taxes;subsidies for beneficial actions;30. Markets do well in the production and distribution of;private goods, but are not so good at;accumulating resources;distribution of resources;public services;protecting sources of information;developing strategies;31. Which of the following activities would NOT be permitted in;a National Wildlife Refuge?;oil and gas development;hunting and fishing;military activities;farming and grazing;all of these are permitted;32. The body of statements defining what is acceptable;environmental behavior for individuals, groups, businesses and nations, is;common law;administrative law;statutory law;environmental law;civil law;33. Almost ____ of American households have no reasonable access;to bus or train service.;10%;25%;42%;50%;75%;34. Which of the following is NOT one of the guideline for;living more sustainably?;Do not degrade or deplete the earth's natural capital.;repair ecological damage;Do not waste matter and energy resources.;protect biodiversity;Encourage more technological answers to problems.;35. Ecological and environmental economists consider which of the;following to be a basic cause of environmental degradation, pollution, poor;health, and premature death?;taxes on wages, income, wealth;using tradable permits or rights to pollute;government subsidies;laws and regulations to prevent pollution;poverty;36. What was the major point learned in the 1991 Biosphere 2;experiment?;How to recycle waste and wastewater.;How to grow a rainforest in an enclosed area.;CO2 recycling is really difficult;Humans cannot engineer life-supporting systems as well as nature.;Extinction is inevitable.;37. Participation in the environmental problems we face is often;accompanied by falling into one or more traps. Which of the following is one of;these traps?;unsustainable pessimism;blind technology optimism;principle of enoughness;paralysis by analysis;faith in simple, easy answers;38. Which branch of government is responsible for overseeing;the agencies that carry out government policies?;judicial;executive;legislative;administrative;military;39. A team of ecologists and economists estimated that the;ecological services provided by the earth's forests are worth at least ___ a;year?;$1.2 trillion;$2.7 trillion;$3.8 trillion;$4.7 trillion;$5.3 trillion;40. New and more innovative business replacing older ones that;can no longer thrive under changing economic conditions is known as;free market system;economic competition;economic succession;neoclassical economics;environmental economics;41. Which country is one of the leaders in making a shift to;more environmenttally sustainable society by developing a national green plan?;The United States;Switzerland;Japan;Australia;The Netherlands;42. Since 1980, the gap between the rich and the poor has;disappeared;increased;stayed the same;decreased;stayed the same and then decreased;43. Which of the following worldviews would include the concept;that when we use the earth's natural capital we are borrowing from the earth;and future generations?;planetary management;stewardship;free-market school;spaceship earth;environmental wisdom;44. Which of the following worldviews understands the earth to;be a complex machine that we can understand, dominate, change, and manage for;everyone's good without overloading natural systems?;spaceship-earth;planetary management;environmental wisdom;biocentric;stewardship;45. Which of the following countries did not adopt Agenda 21, the;global agenda for sustainable development in the 21st century?;Russia;England;United States;Australia;Canada;46. Who of the following is responsible for establishing;the Village Bank and its policy of microloans?;Denis Hayes;Aldo Leopold;Muhammad Yunus;Wangari Maathai;Tyler Miller;47. The measurement of the annual economic value of all goods;and services within a country is called the;GDP;GNP;HPI;GNH;NIH;48. Which of the following is part of the environmental wisdom;worldview?;Success is managing the earth's systems for ourselves.;Success is managing the earth by dominating, changing, and managing;the earth for everyone.;Success is economic growth, development, better management, and;technology.;Success is learning how nature sustains itself and integrating;this into our actions.;Success is understanding nature to dominate, change, and manage it.;49. Hiding the harmful environmental costs from the market;prices of goods and services causes all of the following, EXCEPT;hides costs from consumers;hinder development of environmentally beneficial green goods and;services;promotes pollution;promotes environmental degradation;causes increases in prices;50. Most environmental lawsuits are;nuisance suits;regulatory suits;civil suits;class action suits;criminal suits;51. Sick Building Syndrome is linked to all of the following;EXCEPT;headaches;coughing and sneezing;lung cancer;chronic fatigue;burning eyes;52. During the mid-1900s, the spread of malaria decreased;sharply from all of the following, EXCEPT;draining swamplands;draining marshes;spraying breeding areas with DDT and other pesticides;using drugs to kill the parasites in the bloodstream;a new vaccine;53. Without changing what we are doing to the environment, the;projected amount of warming by the year 2100 is;2 degrees C;3 degrees C;4 degrees C;5 degrees C;6 degrees C;54. Lake Washington, near Seattle, was degraded by the growth of;which of the following?;coliform bacteria;protozoans;snails;aquatic plants;cyanobacteria;55. What is the big deal about the atmosphere getting a few;degrees warmer?;may raise the ocean level;may kill off the coral in the oceans;may cause warm weather plants to move further north or south;may move weather patterns around;may cause a very rapid global change in climate;56. Some individuals can be responsive and highly susceptible to;a number of different toxins. This is referred to as;an acute effect;a chronic effect;multiple chemical sensitivity;an antagonistic reaction;a synergistic reaction;57. Which of the following NOT a reason the incidence of;tuberculosis is increasing?;strains of the TB bacterium that have developed resistance to;antibiotics;population growth;weakened immune systems from the spread of AIDS;air travel;effects of global warming;58. In general, acid deposition has harmful effects for;terrestrial ecosystems when it falls below a pH level of;3.6;4.6;5.6;6.6;7.6;59. Which of the following is not a characteristic of PCBs?;is a carcinogen;is a teratogen;breakdown very slowly;are found almost everywhere;none of these answers;60. A person experiencing dizziness after using a strong;household cleaner is showing;a chronic effect;a sensitive effect;a hypersensitive effect;an acute effect;a chronic effect;61. Climate models predict that global warming will be most;severe in which regions?;desert regions;equatorial regions;polar regions;ocean regions;land masses;62. Harmful chemicals emitted directly into the air from natural;processes and human activities are called;secondary pollutants;smog;photochemical smog;tertiary pollutants;primary pollutants;63. According to a 2009 EPA report, between 1980 and 2008 the;combined emissions of six major air pollutants decreased by how much?;17%;23%;36%;49%;54%;64. The system responsible for growth, reproductive development;and much of our behavior is the;circulatory system;endocrine system;immune system;excretory system;digestive system;65. Which of the following is NOT a strategy for reducing;the threat of climate change?;Improve energy efficiency.;Shift from fossil fuels to a mix of carbon-free energy resources.;Stop cutting down tropical forests.;Capture and store as much carbon dioxide as possible.;use of fossil fuels.;66. Over the past 200 years, the acidity of the ocean surface;has increased by what percentage?;10%;20%;30%;40%;50%;67. Which of the following is NOT one of the world's leading;greenhouse gas producer?;India;European Union;China;Brazil;none of these answers;68. All of the following chemicals are ozone-depleters, EXCEPT;methyl bromide;PCBs;halons;methyl chloroform;CFCs;69. Malaria is spread by;snails;flies;contaminated feces;certain types of mosquitoes;bacteria;70. Which of the following infectious diseases is NOT;among the five most deadly?;pneumonia and flu;measles;malaria;tuberculosis;HIV/AIDS;71. Acid deposition is best classified as a;local problem;state problem;regional problem;national problem;international problem;72. In a warmer world, which of the following organisms are;likely to be hardest hit?;polar bears;insects;weeds;fungi;all of these answers;73. All of the following are non-transmissible diseases EXCEPT;heart disease;most cancers;Measles;malnutrition;asthma;74. The correct sequence of layers of the atmosphere from;innermost to outermost is;mesosphere?stratosphere?thermosphere?troposphere;troposphere?stratosphere?mesosphere?thermosphere;stratosphere?thermosphere?troposphere?mesosphere;thermosphere?stratosphere?mesosphere?troposphere;thermosphere?mesosphere?stratosphere?troposphere;75. The effects of neurotoxins can result in all of the;following, EXCEPT;behavioral changes;learning disabilities;heart disease;attention deficit disorder;death;76. Vegetation improves the quality of life in urban areas by;all of the following means, EXCEPT;providing oxygen;providing wildlife habitat;absorbing air pollutants;warming the air;reducing soil erosion;77. Levying taxes on each unit of pollution discharged into the;air or water is an example of;tradable pollution rights;charging user fees;regulation;green taxes;subsidies for beneficial actions;78. The amount of solid waste produced in the United States each;year would fill a convoy of garbage trucks stretching around the world almost;2 times;4 times;6 times;8 times;10 times;79. The Great Lakes possess ____% of all the surface fresh water;in the United States.;35;95;75;55;45;80. Tradable environmental permits have all of the following;advantages, EXCEPT;flexibility;easy to administer;self-monitoring of emissions;can promote cheating;permit prices determined by market transactions;encourages pollution prevention and waste reduction;81. Which has NOT been a major factor promoting urban;sprawl in the United States?;A surplus of rural open space is still available.;Federal loan guarantees to WWII veterans.;The Homestead Act;still gives land cheaply away in many areas of the country.;Cheap gasoline.;Poor urban planning.;82. Which of the following aquatic ecosystems may be most;capable of diluting, dispersing, and degrading large amounts of sewage, sludge;and oil?;estuary;swiftly flowing stream;deep-water ocean;coastal parts of the ocean;slow-moving river;83. Which of the following is a point source of water pollution?;offshore oil wells;livestock feedlots;urban lands;croplands;parking lots;84. Implementing sound principles concerning environmental issues;policy makers around the world should follow all of the following;principles, EXCEPT;make decisions that help to prevent a problem from occurring or;becoming worse;Support scientific research to understand environmental changes.;understand nature and how our actions affect nature;encourage wide-spread use of energy alternative or technologies with low;net-energy yield.;establish environmental;policy so that no group of people bears unfair share of burden caused by;pollution;85. New and more innovative businesses replacing older ones;that can no longer thrive under changing economic conditions is known as?;free market system;economic competition;economic succession;economic transition;globalization;86. The natural nutrient enrichment of a shallow lake, estuary;or slow moving stream is called;oligotrophy;runoff;upwellings;red tides;eutrophication;87. Advantages of automobiles include all of the following;EXCEPT;symbols of power;mobility;air pollution;basis of much of world?s economy;convenience of use;88. Motor vehicle drivers paying for the full cost of the;harmful effects of fossil fuel use is the application of the;precautionary principle;public access principle;human rights principle;polluter-pays principle;environmental justice principle;89. The U.S. population is;shifting to the north and east;shifting to the north and west;shifting to the south and east;shifting to the south and west;shifting to the north and;south;90. Which of the following is NOT a principle of new;urbanism?;Provide increased money for highway improvements to avoid traffic;congestion.;Make most places in;community within a 10 minute walk.;Provide mixed land uses in a small geographical area.;Emphasize beauty and aesthetics in architectural design.;Create development of land with minimal environmental impact.;91. Nearly __________ of Americans live in urban areas.;40%;50%;60%;70%;80%;92. Bioplastics differ from convention plastics in that.;they are made from;biologically based products;they break down slower;they are heavier;require more energy to produce;made from petrochemical products;93. In the United States, ____% of all urban transportation is;by car.;58;68;78;88;98;94. One fish in _____ taken from the Great Lakes is unsafe for;human consumption.;ten;seven;five;four;three;95. One way to attempt to deal with the solid wastes we create;is to attempt to reduce the environmental impact without trying to reduce the;amount of waste produced. This is called;waste reduction;waste prevention;secondary pollution prevention;primary pollution prevention;waste management;96. In 2006 the U.S. government subsidies to fossil fuel and;nuclear industries totalled?;$12 billion;$26 billion;$39 billion;$47 billion;$56 billion;97. A free-market system operating without government interference;requires that sellers;not coerce or mislead sellers or competitors;provide all the goods and services possible;not include all their indirect costs in the prices;increase profits by pushing;others out of business;use all resources to their fullest;98. Large masses of floating plastics in the Pacific and Atlantic;Oceans are known as;Great Atlantic and Pacific;Garbage Patches;Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Vortexes;Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Hotspots;Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Black Holes;None of these answers;99. With 4.6% of the world's population, the United States;produces about _____ of the world's solid waste.;one-tenth;one-fifth;one-fourth;one-third;one-half;100. A body of water can be depleted of its oxygen by;viruses and parasitic worms;biodegradable wastes;sediments and suspended matter;organic compounds such as;oil, plastics, solvents, and detergents;inorganic wastes

 

Paper#62745 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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