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Seaport ECOL-C100 final exam

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Question;1. All of the following are exmaples of environmental;nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), except;World Wildlife Fund;Natural Resources Defense Council;U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service;The Nature Conservancy;Greenpeace;2. As a form of waste reduction, reuse does all of the;following, EXCEPT;decreases the use of matter resources;decreases the use of energy resources;cuts pollution and waste;creates local jobs;costs money;3. Which of the following is NOT a type of ewaste?;discraded TV sets;discarded computer printer paper;discarded cell phones;discraded electronic toys;discarded computer monitors;4. At what level of exposure to a particular toxic chemical;will the chemical cause harm?;toxicity;biomagnification;persistence;response;dose;5. Markets do well in the production and distribution of;private goods, but are not so good at;accumulating resources;distribution of resources;public services;protecting sources of information;developing strategies;6. Typical rain in the eastern US is at least _____ times more;acidic than what normal precipitation should be;2;5;10;20;50;7. Governments intervene in markets to do all of the following;EXCEPT;prevent degradation of open-access resources;provide public services;provide security ad protecton;manage public resources;direct production of goods and services;8. Developed contries, in the year 2000, pledged to devote 0.7%;of their national income toward reducing hunger and poverty, and moving toward;environmental sustainability. What is the average actual amount donated by;these countries?;2.0%;1.5%;0.75%;0.50%;0.25%;9. The trickle-down effect describes how;Hhigh quality energy being converted to low quality heat energy;Toxic wastes filter down in landfills.;Use of microloans to alleviate poverty;Economic growth increases the number of jobs and helps the poor help themselves.;Movement of toxic pesticides percolate through a food web.;10. Which of the following would NOT traditionally support an;eco-economy?;Shift taxes from wages and profits to pollution and waste.;Improve energy efficiency.;Shift from a carbon-based economy to a renewable fuel-based economy.;Repair ecological damage;Decrease subsidies for alternative fuel vehicles.;11. The process by which individuals and groups tries to;influence or control the policies and actions of governments is known as;lobbying;policy making;politics;all of these answers;none of these answers;12. Countries whose environment has been severely degraded may;be characterized by any of the following, EXCEPT;deterioration of vital infrastructure;increased immigration;allegiance to warlords;breakdown of law and order;violent internal conflict or civil war;13. Ecological and environmental economists consider which of;the following to be a basic cause of environmental degradation, pollution, poor;health, and premature death?;taxes on wages, income, wealth;using tradable permits or rights to pollute;government subsidies;laws and regulations to prevent pollution;poverty;14. Human inputs of outdoor air pollutants occur mostly;in rural areas;in the mountains;along the oceans;in urban areas;in the deserts;15. New and more innovative business replacing older ones that;can no longer thrive under changing economic conditions is known as;free market system;economic competition;economic succession;neoclassical economics;environmental economics;16. ________relates to the amount of a potentially toxic;substance as it passes through food chains and webs.;Toxicity;Biomagnification;Persistence;Response;Dose;17. Which of the following countries did not adopt Agenda 21;the global agenda for sustainable development in the 21st century?;Russia;England;United States;Australia;Canada;18. The atmospheric layer containing 75% of the mass of earth's;air is the;thermosphere;mesosphere;stratosphere;troposphere;tropopause;19. Levying taxes on each unit of pollution discharged into the;air or water is an example of;tradable pollution rights;charging user fees;regulation;green taxes;subsidies for beneficial actions;20. Which branch of the U.S. government is responsible for;instructing federal agencies on their tasks?;federal;military;executive;judicial;none of these answers;21. Environmentalists say that the best way to handle soft;drink and beer containers is to;use landfills;use paper bottles;use stainless steel cans;use reusable glass bottles and PET containers and recycle;bury them;22. Which of the following is the LEAST desirable from an;environmental standpoint?;repair;reduce;reuse;compost;recycle;23. Since 1980, the gap between the rich and the poor has;disappeared;increased;stayed the same;decreased;stayed the same and then decreased;24. The system responsible for defense against disease and;harmful substances is the;circulatory system;endocrine system;immune system;excretory system;skeletal system;25. Most of earth's weather occurs in the;troposphere;thermosphere;mesosphere;stratosphere;tropopause;26. The U.S. population is;shifting to the north and east;shifting to the north and west;shifting to the south and east;shifting to the south and west;shifting to the north and south;27. The leading cause of water pollution is?;industrial facilities;mining;agriculture;domestic sources;none of these answers;28. Pollutants in the Great Lakes of North America can take up;to ____ to be flushed out to the Atlantic Ocean.;25 years;50 years;75 years;100 years;150 years;29. To qualify as a megacity, it must have a population of;people.;1 million;5 million;7 million;10 million;15 million;30. Waste that includes paper, food wastes, cans, bottles, yard;waste, glass, wood, and similar items is called;industrial solid waste;hazardous waste;municipal solid waste;toxic solid waste;ewaste;31. In a warmer world, which of the following organisms are;likely to be hardest hit?;polar bears;insects;weeds;fungi;all of these answers;32. One way to attempt to deal with the solid wastes we create;is to attempt to reduce the environmental impact without trying to reduce the;amount of waste produced. This is called;waste reduction;waste prevention;secondary pollution prevention;primary pollution prevention;waste management;33. With 4.6% of the world's population, the United States;produces about _____ of the world's solid waste.;one-tenth;one-fifth;one-fourth;one-third;one-half;34. Without changing what we are doing to the environment, the;projected amount of warming by the year 2100 is;2 degrees C;3 degrees C;4 degrees C;5 degrees C;6 degrees C;35. In general, acid deposition has harmful effects for;terrestrial ecosystems when it falls below a pH level of;3.6;4.6;5.6;6.6;7.6;36. Large masses of floating plastics in the Pacific and;Atlantic Oceans are known as;Great Atlantic and Pacific Garbage Patches;Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Vortexes;Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Hotspots;Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Black Holes;None of these answers;37. Experts rate indoor air pollution as a;serious health problem for humans;non-serious health problem for humans;mildly serious health problem for humans;high-risk ecological problem;none of these;38. Which of the following is a point source of water pollution?;offshore oil wells;livestock feedlots;urban lands;croplands;parking lots;39. The degradation of Lake Washington resulted from the;introduction by sewage treatment plants of which of the following?;phosphorus;nitrogen;oxygen;chlorine;fecal material;40. The most serious threat from ozone depletion is that;increased UV radiation;causes cataracts;destroys phytoplankton;increases skin cancers;suppresses immune system;causes worse sunburns;41. According to a 2009 EPA report, between 1980 and 2008 the;combined emissions of six major air pollutants decreased by how much?;17%;23%;36%;49%;54%;42. The amount of solid waste produced in the United States each;year would fill a convoy of garbage trucks stretching around the world almost;2 times;4 times;6 times;8 times;10 times;43. Which has NOT been a major factor promoting urban;sprawl in the United States?;A surplus of rural open space is still available.;Federal loan guarantees to WWII veterans.;The Homestead Act still gives land cheaply away in many areas of the;country.;Cheap gasoline.;Poor urban planning.;44. Which of the following is NOT one of the world's leading;greenhouse gas producer?;India;European Union;China;Brazil;none of these answers;45. All of the following are on EPA's "four most dangerous;indoor air pollutants list," EXCEPT;asbestos;radon-222;styrene;cigarette smoke;formaldehyde;46. To be considered safe for swimming, a 100 milliliter sample;of water should contain ___ or fewer colonies of coliform bacteria.;0;5;10;100;200;47. The natural nutrient enrichment of a shallow lake, estuary;or slow moving stream is called;oligotrophy;runoff;upwellings;red tides;eutrophication;48. Which of the following is not a characteristic of PCBs?;is a carcinogen;is a teratogen;breakdown very slowly;are found almost everywhere;none of these answers;49. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates how many;people on earth do NOT have access to clean drinking water?;1 out of 100;1 out of 50;1 out of 20;1 out of 10;1 out of 7;50. One fish in _____ taken from the Great Lakes is unsafe for;human consumption.;ten;seven;five;four;three

 

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