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Seaport ECOL-C100 midterm exam (2014)




Question;1. Ecology is the study of;plants.;animals.;global climate change.;relationships between;organisms and their environment.;the chemistry of living things;2. Which of the following is not a renewable resource?;groundwater;trees;soil;oil;wildlife;3. Large ecological regions with characteristic types of;natural vegetation and distinctive animals adapted to them are called;communities;ecosystems;biomes;ecospheres;populations;4. The first law of thermodynamics tells us that;Doing work always creates heat.;Altering matter is the best;source of energy.;Energy cannot be recycled.;Energy is neither created nor destroyed.;Energy cannot be converted.;5. Nature reveals three basic principles that could help;transition to sustainable societies. Which of the following is NOT one of those;principles?;reliance on solar energy;biodiversity;nutrient cycling;survival of the fittest;none of these answers;6. Which of the following is an example of a density;dependent population control;parasites;predators;infectious diseases;competitors with high niche;overlap;all of these answers;7. One way that species evolve over time to reduce niche;overlap is called;competitive exclusion principle;resource partitioning;population distribution;chemical warfare;mimicry;8. Which of the following would exhibit primary succession?;a rock exposed by;a retreating glacier;an abandoned farm;a clear-cut forest;newly flooded land;a recently burned forest;9. Complex feeding patters for consumers in an ecosystem are;called;food webs;food chains;trophic levels;pyramids of energy;trophic chains;10. What is the primary difference between renewable resources;and nonrenewable resources?;how easily they are discovered;the amount of the resource;the length of time it takes;for the resource to be replenished or renewed;how fast they are being used up;the quality of the resource;11. Emigration is;the one-way;movement of individuals into an established population;the one-way movement of individuals out of an uninhabited area;the one-way movement of individuals out of a population to another;area;the repeated movement into and out of an area;the lack of immigration into an area;12. Parasites;harm but do not kill hosts immediately;are usually larger then their hosts;must be internal to their hosts;may strengthen their hosts over a long period of time;are usually;microscopic (cannot be seen with naked eye);13. A species in an ecosystem that plays a central role in the;health of that ecosystem, and whose removal may cause the collapse of the;ecosystem, is called a(n);foundation species;indicator species;native species;keystone species;specialist species;14. Which of the following would NOT be organic molecules?;lipids;nucleic acids;hydrocarbons;proteins;water;15. A negative feedback loop is illustrated by all of the;following EXCEPT;decelerating loss of heat as a pan of hot water is removed from the;stove;exponential population;growth rate;sweating to cool your body during and after vigorous exercise;a thermostat maintaining a certain temperature in your house;None of the above;16. Exponential growth followed by a steady decrease in;population growth until the population size levels off is typical of;logistic growth;environmental resistance;exponential growth;carrying capacity;biotic potential;17. Some individuals in a population have genetic traits that;enhance their ability to survive and produce offspring, a process called;natural selection;adaptability;genetic drift;mutation;theory of acquired traits;18. Which of the following is the usual order of applying the;scientific process to a problem?;hypothesis-question-observation-experimentation-conclusion-analysis;hypothesis-conclusion-question-observation-experimentation-analysis;observation-hypothesis-conclusion-experimentation-analysis-question;observation-question-hypothesis-experimentation-analysis-conclusion;hypothesis-experimentation-observation-analysis-question-conclusion;19. Large terrestrial regions with similar characteristics are;ecosystems;communities;populations;habitats;biomes;20. Each trophic level in a food chain or food web contains a;certain amount of organic matter, called;food;energy;biomass;organisms;decomposition;21. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction;benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other;interspecific competition;predation;parasitism;mutualism;commensalism;22. The combination of all factors that limit population growth;are known as?;physical tolerance;chemical tolerance;physical & chemical tolerance;environmental resistance;population age structure;23. Geographic isolation may result from which of the following?;volcanic eruption;river;mountain range;road;All of the above;24. Which of the following is NOT an example of an indicator;species?;trout in water with a specific temperature requirement;birds that need a large forested area;butterflies that use a specific plant as food;frogs that take in water and air though their skin;All are example of;indicatory species;25. Density dependence population controls means;high rate of population increase.;low rate of population increase.;population growth declines;as density increases;population growth increases as density increases;all of these answers;26. Which is our best immediate energy option?;Find and burn more forms of oil, natural gas, and coal.;Cut out;unnecessary energy waste by improving energy efficiency.;Build more and better conventional nuclear power plants.;Increase efforts to develop breeder nuclear fission and nuclear;fusion.;Discover a new form of energy.;27. The ocean zone that covers the continental shelf is the;bathyal zone;coastal zone;littoral zone;benthic zone;abyssal zone;28. In lakes, the nutrient-rich water near the shore is part of;the;limnetic zone;benthic zone;littoral zone;profundal zone;abyssal zone;29. A type of inland wetland that are depressions that have been;carved out by ancient glaciers are known as;floodplains;swamps;marshes;prairie potholes;arctic tundra;30. Which of the following would be characteristic of the;profundal zone?;rooted plants;low oxygen levels;nourished by dead matter;main photosynthetic layer;turtles, frogs, crayfish, perch;31. Oysters, clams, and lobsters would be part of which of the;following;phytoplankton;zooplankton;nekton;benthos;decomposers;32. The world's second fastest growing energy resource is;hydropower;wind power;nuclear power;solar power;tidal energy;33. The deepest part of the ocean is the;abyssal zone;euphotic zone;estuary zone;bathyal zone;benthic zone;34. Widely scattered clumps of trees, warm temperatures;year-round, alternating dry and wet seasons, with herds of herbivores are the;characteristics of which of the following?;tall-grass prairie;temperate grasslands;temperate forest;coastal forest;savanna;35. The severity of an earthquake is a measure of its seismic;waves, and is called;epicenter;focus;magnitude;ridges;valleys;36. Clear-cutting does all of the following EXCEPT;greatly increases water runoff;increases loss of soil nutrients;increases death of vegetation;increases recreation;increases pollution of streams;37. All of the following are part of the saltwater or marine;aquatic life zones, EXCEPT;oceans;estuaries;inland wetlands;coastal wetlands;shorelines;38. CITES is a(n);regulations controlling the introduction of exotic species;treaty controlling the;international trade in endangered species;pact that supports critical ecosystems that support wildlife;international organization dedicated to the preservation of endangered;species;policing agency for the protection of threatened species;39. Which of the following is the biggest problem for US;national parks today?;huge number of park visitors;habitat destruction;invasion of alien species;pollution;all of these answers;40. Because birds live in every climate and biome, and because;they are easy to track and count, they serve as excellent;keystone species;foundation species;indicator species;aesthetic indicators;habitat indicators;41. Some toxic chemicals, such as those in DDT, can be stored in;the fat tissue of animals. As these animals become food for larger and larger;animals, the amount of toxin gets larger and larger. This process is called;biotoxification;ecotoxification;biosystemics;biomagnification;bioremediation;42. Renewable energy resources include all of the following;EXCEPT;the sun;the wind;biomass;natural gas;water;43. Which of the following would be characteristic of a;eutrophic lake?;nutrient overload from human activities;nutrients levels between the extremes of too much and too little;small supply of plant nutrients;well-supplied with nutrients;for producers;excessive nutrients;44. The key factors determining the types and numbers of;organisms found in the various layers of both freshwater and marine systems;include all of the following, EXCEPT;parasitism;availability of nutrients;temperature;dissolved oxygen levels;availability of food;45. Treeless, bitterly cold most of the year, winters are long;and dark, low growing plants, permafrost are the characteristics of which of;the following?;tall-grass prairie;tundra;short-grass prairie;temperate grassland;savanna;46. Organisms in this area must be able to avoid being swept away;crushed by waves, or being left high and dry at low tides, and must survive;daily on seasonal salinity and temperature changes.;estuaries;coastal wetlands;bathyal zone;intertidal zone;coral reefs;47. With the Arctic warming twice as fast as the rest of the;world, which of the following organisms is rapidly moving toward threatened;status?;sea lions;walrus;polar bears;seals;arctic fox;48. A jellyfish would be considered a type of which of the;following?;benthos;zooplankton;nekton;phytoplankton;ultraplankton;49. On a fishing boat, someone catches a swordfish. As a;biologist, you would consider this organism a type of;phytoplankton;zooplankton;nekton;benthos;decomposer;50. The weakness of electric cars is their;noise level;maintenance cost;energy-storage system;slow acceleration;price;51. The real prices of goods and services do NOT include;the cost of raw materials;the cost of manufacturing;the environmental costs of resource use;the cost of distribution;the cost of advertising;52. The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used;indefinitely without reducing its available supply is called;conservation;sustainable yield;preservation;recycling;all of these answers;53. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction;benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other?;interspecific competition;predation;parasitism;mutualism;commensalism;54. Which of the following statements is NOT an example of;a physical change?;Confetti is cut from pieces of paper.;Water evaporates from a lake.;Ice cubes are formed in the freezer.;A plant converts carbon dioxide into carbohydrate.;A tree is cut down in the forest.;55. The organisms responsible for nitrogen fixation are;plants;animals;fungi;bacteria;viruses;56. A change in the genetic characteristics of a population from;one generation to another is called;emigration;mutation;natural selection;evolution;genetic drift;57. All of the following are elements EXCEPT;water;oxygen;nitrogen;hydrogen;carbon;58. Life on earth depends on interaction of gravity, the cycling;of matter, and;cycling of energy;one-way flow of energy;one-way flow of matter;the consumption of energy;the consumption of matter;59. Which of the following is a limitation of science?;use of statistical tools for estimation;human error;nothing can be absolutely proven or disproven;natural systems are very complex;all of these;60. Which of the following is an example of reuse?;re-melting aluminum cans;making compost out of kitchen scraps;using plastic butter tubs to store leftovers;using waste heat to warm a room;making paper goods from previously used paper;61. The hydrologic cycle is the movement of;carbon;hydrogen;hydrocarbons;carbohydrates;water;62. A species? way of life in a community is its;role;habitat;ecological niche;geographical location;range;63. The typical percentage of loss of energy in transfers from;one trophic level to the next is about;1%;5%;35%;60%;90%;64. Isotopes are forms of an element that differ from one;another by having different;atomic numbers;numbers of electrons;numbers of protons;mass numbers;electrical charges;65. An atom or group of atoms with one or more net positive or;negative charges is a(n);base;isotope;ion;acid;none of these;66. Which of the following dispersion patterns is most likely;for a population in an environment were resources are scarce?;clump;random;uniform;wide;diffuse;67. The number of different species an ecosystem contains is its;speciation;species evenness;species niche;species richness;habitat;68. The distinct piece of DNA containing instructions for making;proteins is;the chromosome;the nucleotide;genes;the cell membrane;the hydrocarbon;69. Pollution includes;detergents dumped into streams;volcanoes spewing toxic gases into the atmosphere;CO2 releases from coal burning power plants;fertilizer runoff from golf courses;all of these;70. Which of the following is NOT a method predators use to;capture prey?;pursuit;ambush;camouflage;chemical warfare;protective shells;71. Scientists classify energy as either;chemical or physical;kinetic or mechanical;potential or mechanical;potential or kinetic;chemical or kinetic;72. Which of the following is a way that humans alter the water;cycle?;withdraw large quantities from streams, lakes, and aquifers;increase runoff by clearing vegetation from the land;increase flooding by draining and filling wetlands;all of these answers;none of these answers;73. Biodiversity includes all of the following components EXCEPT;functional diversity;genetic diversity;geomorphic diversity;ecosystem diversity;species diversity;74. These are the parts of the earth?s air, water, and soil;where organisms are found.;habitat;niche;community;ecosystem;biosphere;75. For natural selection to occur, an adaptive trait;must be a physical trait;must be a physiological trait;must be a psychological trait;must be a heritable trait;must not be a heritable trait;76. The two most important factors that determine an area's;climate are;temperature and wind;temperature and precipitation;precipitation and light;light and temperature;wind and light;77. Deep lakes with steep banks that have a small supply of;plant nutrients are;oligotrophic lakes;eutrophic lakes;culturally eutrophic lakes;hypereutrophic lakes;mesotrophic lakes;78. The most effective water heater;is an electric water tank;is a gas water heater;is an oil water heater;is a tankless instant water heater fired by natural gas;is a propane water heater;79. One-third of the human food supply comes from plant that are;pollinated by;bats;birds;insects;wind;mammals;80. The direct threat of climate change to marine habitat is;increase in carbon storage in oceans;spread of tropical diseases;decreased salinity of water;rising sea levels;UV radiation from ozone depletion;81. The greatest marine biodiversity is located;in the bottom region of the ocean;in the surface region of the ocean;in the coastal region of the ocean;in the open ocean;in coral reefs;82. It is necessary to use energy to get energy. The difference;between what you get and what you use to get it is called;gain;loss;gross energy;profit;net energy;83. An old-growth forest would be defined as;a commercial forest older than 30 years;a forest undisturbed for at least 50 years;a second-growth forest undisturbed for at least 100 years;a re-planted forest that has had little disturbance for 100 years;an uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for several hundred;years;84. Which of the following is NOT one of the external;geologic processes driven by energy from the sun?;formation of mountains;wind erosion;weathering;water erosion;glacial erosion;85. The dimly lit zone in which zooplankton and smaller fishes;predominate, is the;abyssal zone;euphotic zone;estuary zone;bathyal zone;benthic zone;86. Forests cover about _____ % of the U.S. land area.;10;15;25;30;50;87. The continuous, low level extinction of species that has;occurred since the beginning of life on earth is called;continual extinction;mass extinction;background extinction;local extinction;biological extinction;88. Which of the following countries has a significant whaling;industry and whale meat market?;United States;Australia;Great Britain;Japan;China;89. The most important factor in determining which biome is;found in a particular area is;soil type;topography;geology;climate;landforms;90. The root cause of food insecurity is;war;political upheaval;poverty;corruption;climate change;91. The location on the earth?s surface above where an;earthquake begins is called its;apex;focus;magnitude;epicenter;fault;92. The world?s single largest cause of illness is;malaria;typhoid;mosquitoes;poor health;unsafe drinking water;93. The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the;earth is called the;crust;tectonic plate;core;mantle;magma;94. Which part of the earth?s crust makes up 71% of the crust?;oceanic crust;asthenosphere;lithosphere;continental crust;geosphere;95. Which of the following describes a local area?s short-term;temperature, precipitation, and humidity?;climate;weather;rainshadow;thermal inversions;wind patterns;96. Approximately _____ of the commercial energy used in the;U.S. is wasted;25%;58%;65%;78%;84%;97. In 2008 approximately 36% of the commercial honeybee;colonies in the U.S. were lost due to?;habitat loss;climate change;hybridization with African honey bees;colony collapse disorder;pesticide use;98. It takes approximately ____ barrels of water to produce one;barrel of shale oil;1;2;5;10;25;99. Prevailing winds are the result of what?;temperature;direction the sun strikes the earth;rotation of the earth on its axis;ocean currents;sun storms;100. Which of the following refers to the ability of a living;system to be restored after a period of moderate disturbance?;stability;inertia;constancy;stability;resilience


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