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BIO Practice Exam 2




Question;FORM A1. Which form of the exam do you have?A. AB. B2. Scientists recently discovered a drug that can turn off the oncogene myc in mice with livertumors. You would expect this to:A. stop or slow the rate of cancer progressionB. have no effect on cancer progressionC. speed up the rate of cancer progression3. Women experience the symptoms of osteoporosis more acutely than men. Why is this true?A. Women have less bone mass and produce less estrogen later in their lives, whichaccelerates calcium loss.B. Women have less muscle mass and don't exercise as much.C. Men don't produce estrogen, so they don't rely on it as much as women do.D. Men take in more calcium in their diet, so they can't get osteoporosis.4. Tamoxifen is a drug that fits into the estrogen receptors. When this happens in breast tissue,it blocks the effects of estrogen. Based on what you know about the relationship betweenestrogen and breast cancer, you would predict that this would:A. help prevent the development of breast cancer in women who are atgreat riskB. starve breast tumorsC. cause the tumor to metastasizeD. stimulate the development of blood vessels that nourish the tumorE. none of the above5. Astronauts returning to Earth from an extended stay in space have to be extremely careful orthey could break a bone. It takes several weeks to restore normal bone strength. Which wouldbe the best regimen to rebuild the lost bone tissue?A. Nothing special is needed, just lie around and watch TV.B. Hit the gym and do a few weeks of heavy weight lifting.C. Several weeks of swimming will rebuild all lost bone mass.D. Start with walking and build up to jogging, with an extra regimen of light weightlifting in the gym.6. Exercise can prevent ovulation. Based on what you know about the relationship betweenestrogen and breast cancer, how would you predict the risk of breast cancer would be alteredin a woman who exercised regularly from the time she was a teenager into her 40s?A. Her risk would be increased.B. Her risk would be decreased.C. It would have no effect on her risk of breast cancer.17. Indicate the CORRECT choice statement about fibrocystic breast disorder.A. Fibrocystic disorder is caused by a virus that causes the overproduction of estrogen.B. Fibrocystic disorder usually decreases a woman?s risk of developing breast cancer.C. Fibrocystic disorder occurs either when the breast tissue is over-stimulated to divideor when the reabsorption of tissue is inadequate.D. Fibrocystic disorder is more common after a woman reaches menopause.8. When p53 detects genetic damage, it normally:A. stimulates the S phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is copied.B. triggers programmed cell deathC. causes the cell to metastasize.D. lengthens telomeres9. During metastasis, when cancer cells spread through the body, they break free from theoriginal tumor and travel in the blood stream. What do normal, healthy cells do if they breakfree from their normal surroundings?A. They increase their rate of cell division.B. They destroy their telomeres.C. They begin meiosis.D. They stop dividing.10. Indicate the choice that includes only CORRECT statements:Statements:1. Many women still get their periods after they reach menopause.2. After menopause, a woman's level of estrogen is lower than it was when she was inher 30s..3. The possibility of developing osteoporosis becomes a greater concern for womenafter they reach menopause.4. During the time when a woman is approaching menopause she may experiencefrequent hot flashes.`5. All women lose interest in sex after they reach menopause.Choices:A. 1, 2, 3B. 2, 3, 4C. 3, 4, 5D. 1, 4, 5E. 1, 3, 4211. If a man has a tumor on his thyroid gland, causing it to produce too much calcitonin:A. his blood level of calcium would go upB. his blood level of calcium would not changeC. his blood level of calcium would go down12. Carcinogens are chemicals that cause cancer. They might act in each of the following waysEXCEPT:A. They might stimulate cell division.B. They might trigger programmed cell death.C. They might inhibit the immune systemD. They might cause mutations.13. You are a physician. Following a PBS special on breast cancer, four women come to visit youbecause each has discovered a lump in her breast. In which of the following women would it beLEAST likely that the lump was cancerous?A. Heather is 22. She was a junior in high school when she got her first period. She has atwo-year-old daughter.B. Amy is 30. Her older sisters both have breast cancer.C. Susan is a 60-year-old woman who is a lawyer. She waited to start her family until shewas 30 years old. She reached menopause last year.D. Barbara is 57. She is greatly overweight. and drinks (alcohol) heavily. She justifies hereating and drinking by explaining that she is going through menopause and has swings inemotions.14. GRN163L is a drug that prevents telomerase from acting. GRN163L might prove to be agood cancer treatment because preventing telomerase activity:A. would prevent cancer cells from breaking cell anchorsB. would cause the tumor cells to starve to deathC. would allow the cancer cells to divide indefinitely15. Which of the following is an INCORRECT statement about the causes of cancer?A. Genetic mutations cause cancer.B. Genetic mutations can be caused by environmental influences, including radiationand certain chemicals.C. A healthy immune system can help prevent cancer.D. All viruses cause cancer.316. The processing of oxygen can produce harmful chemicals called free radicals, which candamage the cell?s genetic information (cause mutations). Antioxidants, such as vitamins C, E,and beta-carotene, prevent the formation of free radicals. Based on what you have learnedabout the causes of cancer, which is the most likely explanation for the cancer-preventingaction of foods that contain large amounts of antioxidants?A. They inhibit the formation of blood vessels.B. They trigger cell death in cancer cells.C. They form cell attachments that are exceptionally strong.D. They prevent mutations in tumor-suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes.17. One reason that a woman's risk of developing breast cancer is increased if her mother orsister have had breast cancer is that she may have inherited:A. p53B an over active immune systemC. a mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2D. estrogen18. Your sister?s breasts get larger and are tender before she gets her period each month. Sheasks you why this happens. You CORRECTLY explain to her that:A. she most likely has fibrocystic breast disorderB. much of the breast is composed of muscle and estrogen causes muscle contractionC. it is caused by a fibroadenomaD. none of the above19. When blood calcium level drops below optimal, which hormone causes calcium to bereleased from bone into the bloodstream?A. BonivaB. EstrogenC. CalcitoninD. PTH (parathyroid hormone)20. Cancer researchers are working on drugs that will prevent the growth of blood vessels to atumor. This would be important because:A. blood brings chemicals that can cause cancer (carcinogens)B. a blood supply brings nutrients to nourish cancer cells and also provides a route bywhich the cells can spreadC. blood brings telomerase to cancer cellsD. blood stimulates tumor suppressor genesE. all of the above421. Radiation therapy is sometimes used as a treatment for cancer. Radiation causes severeDNA damage and affects rapidly dividing cells more than other cells. About half of all cancershave a mutant p53 gene. Why would mutations in p53 make radiation unable to kill cancercells?A. p53 mutations directly cause additional DNA damageB. p53 mutations could prevent the proper activation of programmed cell deathC. p53 prevents the cell from breaking cell adhesion moleculesD. None of the above22. Even if a cell has mutations in the genes that regulate cell division, it usually cannot dividemore than 50 or 60 times. This is because the resulting cells:A. run out of nourishment.B. lose their cell anchors.C. have shaved off the telomeres and begin to damage important genes.D. become carcinogens.23. Choose the INCORRECT statement about the development of cancer.A. It requires only a single genetic mutation.B. It begins in a single cell.C. It usually results in the development of a tumor.D. The cancer cells must attract a blood supply.24. Prolonged estrogen exposure increases a woman?s risk of breast cancer because estrogen:A. causes programmed cell deathB. causes mutations (changes in the genetic information) in tumor suppressor genesC. breaks the molecules that anchor cancer cells in place, allowing them to spreadD. stimulates the formation of new blood vesselsE. none of the above25. Cancer can be thought of as a genetic disease, but a person does not inherit cancer from aparent. However, a person can inherit a predisposition to cancer (a tendency to developcancer). This is possible because:A. A person can inherit too many cell anchors (cell adhesion molecules) from a parent.B. A single cancer cell can cross the placenta and enter a fetus. That cell can formtumors much later in life.C. Several mutations are necessary before a cell becomes cancerous. A person mayinherit one of those mutations from a parent.D. A person can inherit too many telomeres and these stimulate cell division.E. None of the above5ABCDUse the diagram to the left to answer thesequestions.26. To go from stage A to stage B, a cell mustdevelop mutations in the genesA. regulate cell division.B. produce telomeraseC. inhibit the immune systemD. attract blood vessels27. New tumors in other parts of the body canform because of the process shown in whichstage of the diagram?28. Choose the INCORRECT statement:A. Normal cells can divide only 50 ? 60 times because after that the telomeres have beenshaved offB. Cancer cells trigger programmed cell death even when the cells have no geneticdamageC. Cancer cells produce proteins that prevent the cell from being held in place but signalthe cell that it is anchoredD. A tumor begins with a single cell that has escaped the normal controls on cell divisionE. Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the original location29 Which of the following lists the events that occur in the development of cancer in the correctorder?A. mutation, tumor formation, metastasisB. tumor formation, metastasis, mutationC. metastasis, tumor formation, mutationD. mutation, metastasis, tumor formation30. Indicate the choice that is a risk factors for breast cancer that can be changed.Risk factors:A. GeneticsB. Alcohol consumptionC. Age at pubertyD. Testosterone level


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