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Biol 101 - DNA and Principles of Inheritance quiz




Question;1. Conceptually speaking, order the following structures from smallest to largest: DNA, gene, genome, chromosome, nucleotide.;?a. DNA, gene, genome, chromosome, nucleotide;?b. genome, DNA, chromosome, nucleotide, gene;?c. nucleotide, gene, DNA, chromosome, genome;?d. gene, chromosome, nucleotide, genome, DNA;2. Which of the following are living things? DNA, gene, genome, chromosome, cell, nucleotide.;?a. DNA, gene, and genome;?b. chromosome and DNA;?c. cell, chromosome, and genome;?d. cell only;3. Which structures are considered the "basic unit of life" and the "basic unit of heredity"?;?a. The basic unit of life is the cell, and the basic unit of heredity is the gene.;?b. The basic unit of life is the cell, and the basic unit of heredity is the nucleotide.;?c. The basic unit of life is the protein, and the basic unit of heredity is the nucleotide.;?d. The basic unit of life is DNA, and the basic unit of heredity is the gene.;4. What is a gene?;?a. the protein that results after translation is complete;?b. a segment of DNA that is three nucleotides long;?c. a segment of DNA that carries a unit of information;?d. one arm of a single chromosome;5. Genes exist in pairs in cells. Where did each member of a pair of genes originate?;?a. one from each parent's gametes;?b. the duplication of chromosomes during the S phase;?c. crossing over during prophase I;?d. the growth during G1 produced each member of the pair;6. What is wrong with this example? A heterozygous pea plant produces;yellow seeds and its genotype is Yg, where Y represents the dominant;yellow seed allele and g represents the recessive green seed allele.;?a. The genotype should be presented as Gg because green is the recessive trait.;?b. A heterozygous pea plant with yellow seeds would have the genotype YY or yy.;?c. The correct genotype is Yy because yellow is the dominant trait.;?d. The genotype Yg would produce green seeds.;7. Use your newfound knowledge of the inheritance of traits and Punnett;Squares to predict the chances that a Gg pea plant producing green pods;and a gg pea plant producing yellow pods, when crossed with one another;will produce offspring with yellow pods.;?a. There is a 0-percent chance of this cross producing yellow pods.;?b. There is a 25-percent chance of this cross producing yellow pods.;?c. There is a 50-percent chance of this cross producing yellow pods.;?d. There is a 100-percent chance of this cross producing yellow pods.;NOTE: Questions 8?13 refer to the offspring of the plant described in question 7.;8. What is the genotype of these offspring?;?a. GG;?b. Gg;?c. gg;?d. yellow;9. What is the phenotype of these offspring?;?a. gg;?b. yellow;?c. heterozygous;?d. dominant;10. Is this plant heterozygous or homozygous? Why?;?a. Heterozygous?the genotype consists of two different alleles.;?b. Heterozygous?the genotype consists of two identical alleles.;?c. Homozygous?the genotype consists of two different alleles.;?d. Homozygous?the genotype consists of two identical alleles.;11. What dominant alleles, if any, does this plant have in its cells?;?a. G;?b. g;?c. none;12. What recessive alleles, if any, does this plant have in its cells?;?a. G;?b. g;?c. none;13. Where are the alleles located in this plant?;?a. on the golgi apparatus;?b. in the nucleolus;?c. on the amino acids;?d. in the DNA;14. If purple flowers are dominant on pea plants, what alleles does a pea plant have if it produces purple flowers?;?a. pp;?b. WW;?c. PP only;?d. PP and Pp;15. A particular pea plant has the following characteristics;height: tall, with a genotype of Tt seed;texture: wrinkled, with a genotype of rr pod;color: green, with a genotype of pp (purple is the dominant color);Is the genotype for the color of the pea plant heterozygous or homozygous?;?a. heterozygous;?b. homozygous;?c. neither of the above;16. What are the two general types of chromosomes in human cells?;?a. autosomes and sex chromosomes;?b. homozygous and heterozygous;?c. dominant and recessive;?d. X and Y;17. How many autosomes and sex chromosomes does a human male liver cell have?;?a. 22;?b. 23;?c. 44;?d. 46;18. How many autosomes and sex chromosomes does a human egg have?;?a. 22;?b. 23;?c. 44;?d. 46;19. How many Y chromosomes does a woman have in her cells?;?a. 0;?b. 1;?c. 2;?d. 23;20. Normal human lung cells contain two copies of chromosome 3. Together;these are called a pair of homologous chromosomes. How are homologous;chromosomes similar and how are they different from one another?;?a. Homologous chromosomes are identical to each other in every way.;?b. They have the same genes, but they are located in different places on the chromosome.;?c. They have the same length and shape but carry different genes.;?d. They have the same length and shape and carry the same genes but may have different alleles.;21. Is it possible to have an autosomal sex-linked gene?;a. yes;b. no;c. sometimes;22. Is it possible to have a dominant recessive trait?;a. yes;b. no;sometimes;23. Neither Mr. nor Mrs. Abbott has the genetic disease cystic fibrosis;but their newborn son, James, does. Based on this information alone, is;it most likely that cystic fibrosis is an autosomal dominant, autosomal;recessive, or sex-linked genetic disease?;a. autosomal dominant;b. autosomal recessive;c. sex-linked;d. none of the above;24. The glucose dehydrogenase gene is located on chromosome 1 in humans. Is this an autosomal or a sex-linked gene?;a. autosomal;b. sex-linked;c. neither of the above;25. What holds the nucleotides in one strand of DNA together?;a. hydrogen bonds between adjacent nucleotides;b. covalent bonds between adjacent nucleotides;c. ionic bonds between adjacent nucleotides;d. electron bonds between adjacent nucleotides;26. If the sequence of one strand of a DNA molecule is AGTGCCAGATCGCATCC, what does the other strand of the molecule look like?;a. AGTGCCAGATCGCATCC;b. AGUGCCAGAUCGCAUCC;c. TCACGGTCTAGCGTAGG;d. UCACGGUCUAGCGUACC;27. How are these two strands held together in the double helix?;a. hydrogen bonds between base pairs;b. covalent bonds between base pairs;c. ionic bonds between base pairs;d. electron bonds between base pairs;28. When does DNA replication occur?;a. during the G1 phase of interphase;b. during the S phase of interphase;c. during the G2 phase of interphase;d. during prophase;29. Why do cells duplicate (replicate) their DNA?;a. to have enough DNA available to act as a template for RNA during transcription;b. to reduce the number of chromosomes present in each gamete;c. to ensure genetic variability among all cells;d. so that each of the daughter cells formed during mitosis will have an identical copy of the DNA;30. How is information stored and coded in DNA and genes?;a. in sets of three nucleotides called codons;b. in amino acids that are bonded together to form proteins;c. as mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA;d. by an RNA polymerase;31. Put the following in the correct sequence to show the general path;in which genetic information "flows" from genes to traits: DNA, protein;RNA, trait, transcription, translation.;a. DNA, translation, transcription, protein, RNA, trait;b. transcription, DNA, translation, protein, RNA, trait;c. DNA, transcription, RNA, translation, protein, trait;d. DNA, RNA, transcription, translation, protein, trait;32. What is meant by the term genetic code?;a. the DNA in cells that carries information in genes to assemble proteins;b. all DNA and RNA found in cells;c. the proteins assembled during translation;d. the base pairing rules: A to T and G to C;33. What are the subunits from which DNA, RNA, and proteins are built?;a. uracil, thymine, and methionine;b. DNA and RNA = nucleotides, protein = amino acids;c. histones and nucleosomes;d. simple sugars;34. Compare and contrast transcription and translation.;a. In translation, RNA makes a copy of DNA in the nucleus, and in;transcription, the RNA provides the code to assemble proteins in the;ribosome.;b. In transcription, RNA takes DNA from the nucleus to the ribosome, and in translation, the DNA separates into proteins.;c. In transcription, DNA makes a copy of RNA in the nucleus, and in;translation, the DNA provides the code to assemble proteins in the;mitochondria.;d. In transcription, RNA makes a copy of DNA in the nucleus, and in;translation, the RNA provides the code to assemble proteins in the;ribosome.;35. What does the phrase differential gene expression mean?;a. Each cell has different genes present in its genetic code.;b. The protein coded for by a single gene may change in different cells.;c. Only some genes are turned on in each particular cell.;d. Different genes may code for the same protein in different cells


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