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BIO102/103 Lab5:Meiosis

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Question;Your Full Name;102/103;Lab5:Meiosis;INSTRUCTIONS;?;and submit it via theAssignments Folder by the date listedintheCourse;Schedule (underSyllabus).;?;To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the;Laboratory Manuallocated under Course Content.;Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment carefully;before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.;?;Save your Lab5AnswerSheet in the following format: LastName_Lab5 (e.g.;Smith_Lab5).;?;You should submit your documentas a Word (.doc or.docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file for best compatibility.;Pre-Lab Questions;1. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.;2.;What major event occurs;during interphase?;Experiment 1: Following Chromosomal;DNA Movement through Meiosis;Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment;Trial 1 - Meiotic Division Beads Diagram;Prophase I;Metaphase I;Anaphase I;Telophase I;Prophase II;Metaphase II;Anaphase II;Telophase I;Cytokinesis;Trial 2 - Meiotic Division Beads Diagram;Prophase I;Metaphase I;Anaphase I;Telophase I;Prophase II;Metaphase II;Anaphase II;Telophase I;Cytokinesis;Post-Lab Questions;1. What is the ploidy of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What;about at the end of meiosis II?;2. How are meiosis I and meiosis II different?;3. Why do you use non-sister chromatids to demonstrate;crossing over?;4. What combinations of alleles could result from a crossover;between BD and bd chromosomes?;5. How many chromosomes were present when meiosis I started?;6. How many nuclei are present at the end of meiosis II? How;many chromosomes are in each?;7. Identify two ways that meiosis contributes to genetic;recombination.;8. Why is it necessary to reduce the number of chromosomes in gametes;but not in other cells?;9. Blue whales have 44 chromosomes in every cell. Determine;how many chromosomes you would expect to find in the following;i. Sperm Cell;ii. Egg Cell;iii. Daughter Cell from Mitosis;iv. Daughter Cell from Meiosis II;10.;Research and find a;disease that is caused by chromosomal mutations. When does the mutation occur?;What chromosomes are affected? What are the consequences?;11.;Diagram what would happen;if sexual reproduction took place for four generations using diploid (2n);cells.;Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell;Cycle Control;Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment;1.;2.;3.;4.;5.;Post-Lab Questions;1.;Record your hypothesis;from Step 1 in the Procedure section here.;2.;What do your results;indicate about cell cycle control?;3.;Suppose a person developed;a mutation in a somatic cell which diminishes the performance of the body?s;natural cell cycle control proteins. This mutation resulted in cancer, but was;effectively treated with a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it;possible for this person?s future children to inherit this cancer-causing;mutation? Be specific when you explain why or why not.;4.;Why do cells which lack;cell cycle control exhibit karyotypes which look physically different than;cells with normal cell cycle.;5.;What are HeLa cells? Why;are HeLa cells appropriate for this experiment?;Experiment 1: Following Chromosomal DNA Movement through Meiosis;In this experiment, you will model the movement of the chromosomes;through meiosis I and II to create gametes.;Materials;2 Sets of Different Colored Pop-it? Beads (32 of each - these may be;any color);8 5-Holed Pop-it? Beads (used as centromeres);Procedure;Part 1: Modeling Meiosis without Crossing Over;As prophase I begins, the replicated chromosomes coil and condense?;Build a pair of replicated, homologous chromosomes. 10 beads;should be used to create each individual sister chromatid (20 beads;per chromosome pair). Two five-holed beads represent each centromere.;To do this...;Figure 3: Bead set-up.;The blue beads represent one pair of sister chromatids and the black;beads represent a second pair of sister chromatids. The black and blue;pair are homologous.;Start with 20 beads of the same color to create your first sister;chromatid pair. Five beads must be snapped together for each of the;four different strands. Two strands create the first chromatid, and;two strands create the second chromatid with a 5-holed bead at the;center of each chromatid. This creates an ?I? shape.;Connect the ?I? shaped sister chromatids by the 5-holed beads to;create an ?X? shape.;Repeat this process using 20 new beads (of a different color) to;create the second sister chromatid pair.;Assemble a second pair of replicated sister chromatids, this time;using 12 beads, instead of 20, per pair (six beads per each complete;sister chromatid strand).;Pair up the homologous chromosome pairs created in Step 1 and 2.;DO NOT SIMULATE CROSSING OVER IN THIS TRIAL. You will simulate;crossing over in Part 2.;Configure the chromosomes as they would appear in each of the;stages of meiotic division (prophase I and II, metaphase I and II;anaphase I and II, telophase I and II, and cytokinesis).;Diagram the corresponding images for each stage in the sections;titled ?Trial 1 - Meiotic Division Beads Diagram?. Be sure to indicate;the number of chromosomes present in each cell for each phase.;Figure 4: Second set of;replicated chromosomes.;Disassemble the beads used in Part 1. You will need to recycle;these beads for a second meiosis trial in Steps 8 - 13.;Part 1 - Meiotic Division Beads Diagram;Prophase I;Metaphase I;Anaphase I;Telophase I;Prophase II;Metaphase II;Anaphase II;Telophase II;Cytokinesis;Part 2: Modeling Meiosis with Crossing Over;Build a pair of replicated, homologous chromosomes. 10 beads;should be used to create each individual sister chromatid (20 beads;per chromosome pair). Two five-holed beads represent each centromere.;To do this...;Start with 20 beads of the same color to create your first sister;chromatid pair. Five beads must be snapped together for each of the;four different strands. Two strands create the first chromatid, and;two strands create the second chromatid with a 5-holed bead at the;center of each chromatid. This creates an ?I? shape.;Connect the ?I? shaped sister chromatids by the 5-holed beads to;create an ?X? shape.;Repeat this process using 20 new beads (of a different color) to;create the second sister chromatid pair.;Assemble a second pair of replicated sister chromatids, this time;using 12 beads, instead of 20, per pair (six beads per each complete;sister chromatid strand). Snap each of the four pieces into a new;five-holed bead to complete the set up.;Pair up the homologous chromosomes created in Step 8 and 9.;SIMULATE CROSSING OVER. To do this, bring the two homologous pairs;of sister chromatids together (creating the chiasma) and exchange an;equal number of beads between the two. This will result in chromatids;of the same original length, there will now be new combinations of;chromatid colors.;Configure the chromosomes as they would appear in each of the;stages of meiotic division (prophase I and II, metaphase I and II;anaphase I and II, telophase I and II, and cytokinesis).;Diagram the corresponding images for each stage in the section;titled ?Trial 2 - Meiotic Division Beads Diagram?. Be sure to indicate;the number of chromosomes present in each cell for each phase. Also;indicate how the crossing over affected the genetic content in the;gametes from Part1 versus Part 2.;Part 2 - Meiotic Division Beads Diagram;Prophase I;Metaphase I;Anaphase I;Telophase I;Prophase II;Metaphase II;Anaphase II;Telophase II;Cytokinesi;Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control;Some;environmental factors can cause genetic mutations which result in a lack of;proper cell cycle control (mitosis). When this happens, the possibility for;uncontrolled cell growth occurs. In some instances, uncontrolled growth can;lead to tumors, which are often associated with cancer, or other biological;diseases.;In this;experiment, you will review some of the karyotypic differences which can be;observed when comparing normal, controlled cell growth and abnormal, uncontrolled;cell growth. A karyotype is an image of the complete set of diploid chromosomes;in a single cell.;Procedure;Materials;*Computer Access;*Internet Access;*You Must Provide;1. Begin by constructing a;hypothesis to explain what differences you might observe when comparing the;karyotypes of human cells which experience normal cell cycle control versus;cancerous cells (which experience abnormal, or a lack of, cell cycle control).;Record your hypothesis in Post-Lab Question 1.Note: Be sure to include what you expect to;observe, and why you think you will observe these;features. Think about what you know about cancerous cell growth to help;construct this information;2. Go online to find some;images of abnormal karyotypes, and normal karyotypes. The best results will;come from search terms such as ?abnormal karyotype?, ?HeLa cells?, ?normal;karyotype?, ?abnormal chromosomes?, etc. Be sure to use dependable resources;which have been peer-reviewed;3. Identify at least five;abnormalities in the abnormal images. Then, list and draw each image in the;Data section at the end of this experiment. Do these abnormalities agree with;your original hypothesis?;Hint: It may be helpful to count the number of;chromosomes, count the number of pairs, compare the sizes of homologous;chromosomes, look for any missing or additional genetic markers/flags, etc.;Data;1.;2.;3.;4.;5.;Clickhere to download and solve a few questions.

 

Paper#62828 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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