Question;Week 5: Daily Energy;Balance;Invitation;to Inquiry;Many kinds of foods are marketed to those who;participate in various kinds of sports. The implication is that these foods;have additional nutrients or higher quantities of nutrients need by the;athlete. Go to a store and read the ingredient label on one of these products.;Compare it to an equivalent product that is not marketed in such a manner. For;example, you could compare a sports drink to a soft drink or orange juice. You;could compare a ?nutrient bar? to an equivalent candy bar or snack food. Look;specifically at quantities of calories, fats, proteins, sodium, and potassium.;How are they different? What other foods could you eat that would provide the;same calories and nutrients?;Background;The theoretical biological;sciences of biochemistry, anatomy, cell biology, and physiology are brought;together in the practical biological field of nutrition. The science of nutrition;is the study of the processes involved in taking in, assimilating, and utilizing;nutrients. The amount of food and drink consumed by a person from day to day is;a person?s diet. There has been an increased interest in diet and;personal nutrition as more information concerning these subjects becomes;available through the popular press, scientific publications, health clubs, and;schools. Not only are people ?counting calories? and concerned with the grams;of fat they consume, but they are becoming scientifically literate enough to;ask significant questions to their physicians, teachers, food manufacturers;and government officials. With a minimal amount of nutrition information, it is;possible to get a better handle on your own nutritional status.;In;this exercise, you determine your daily basal metabolic rate, voluntary muscular;activity, and specific dynamic action per day. These are used to estimate your;total energy requirements per day in kilocalories (kcal). You then calculate;your total daily kcal intake. By comparing these two figures, you can determine;whether or not your present diet should result in your maintaining, losing, or;gaining weight.;You will determine your;1. basal metabolic;rate;2. voluntary;muscular activity level;3. specific;dynamic action;4. kilocalorie;intake per day by adding your BMR, activity level, and SDA;5. total energy;requirements and compare to your energy kcal intake per day, and;6. energy balance.;Procedure;Determining;Your Basal Metabolic Rate;Your BMR (basal metabolic rate) is the rate;at which kcals are used for maintenance activities and can be measured on a;daily basis. This is also the total amount of energy per kilogram per hour;expended after a 12-hour fast. Energy is measured in kilocalories, the;amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1?C. BMR can;be estimated by using a short formula that is based on 1.0 kcal per kilogram of;body weight per hour for men, or 0.9 kcal per kilogram of body weight for;women. Even though this is a crude method, it does give some idea of the BMR.;Body weight? BMR factor = Estimated BMR (kcal/kg/hour);For;example: If a male weighs 150 lbs, his mass in kilograms will be 68 kg.;Therefore, the estimated BMR is;68 kg? 1.0 kcal/kg/hr = 68 kcal/kg/hr;24 hours/day? Estimated BMR/hour = Estimated energy;expenditure/day;68 kcal/kg/hr? 24 hours = 1632 kcal/kg/day;If a female;weighs 120 lbs, her mass in kilograms will be 55 kg. Therefore, the estimated;BMR is;55 kg? 0.9 kcal/kg/hr = 49 kcal/kg/hr;24 hours/day? Estimated BMR/hour = Estimated energy;expenditure/day;49 kcal/kg/hr? 24 hours = 1176 kcal/kg/day;These;are estimated basal metabolic rates for these two people. Using this method;calculate your own BMR;Body weight in;kg? BMR factor;in kcal/kg/hr = Estimated energy expenditure in kcal/kg/hr;24 hours/day? Your estimated energy expenditure/hour =;kcal/day;(your estimated energy;expenditure/day;or kcal/day used while;at rest);For a more accurate determination of your BMR, use;standard tables from your text and calculate your skin surface area from your;height and weight. A table of kilocalories per day per square meter of skin;lists the kilocalories expended by a female or male by age group. This;kilocalorie figure should be multiplied by your skin surface area to determine;your BMR more accurately.;Skin surface;area?;Kilocalories per day per square meter of skin = BMR;Your;skin surface area?;Kilocalories per day per square meter of your skin = kcal/day;Estimating;Your Energy Output per Day;Energy output per day is an estimate of your;voluntary muscular activity per day. For a person who engages in only sedentary;activities such as desk work, the estimated energy output is approximately 50%;of his or her already determined BMR. For example, if the male in the previous;example were a typist, his voluntary muscular activity level for the day would;be;0.50? 1632 kcal/day = 816 kcal/day;For a person who engages in light activities such;as standing, talking, and minor amounts of walking, the estimated energy output;is approximately 60% of his or her already determined BMR. For example, if the;female in the previous example were a teacher, her voluntary muscular activity;level for the day would be;0.60? 1176 kcal/day = 706 kcal/day;For a person who engages in moderate activities;that exceed those described as light, the estimated energy output is;approximately 70% of his or her already determined BMR. For example, if the;male described were a nurse, his voluntary muscular activity level for the day;would be;0.70? 1632 kcal/day = 800 kcal/day;Those participating in heavy activities are;estimated to use an equivalent of their BMR per day. For a person engaged in;heavy lifting and moving or a daily workout of an hour or more;1.00? 1632 kcal/day = 1,632 kcal/day;Estimate your;voluntary muscular energy expenditure per day;Percent of;BMR based on activity level? BMR =;kcal/day;(your voluntary muscular;energy expenditure);Estimating;Your Specific Dynamic Action (SDA);The specific dynamic action (SDA) is the amount of;energy needed to metabolize food for the day. This is approximately 10% of a;person?s total daily basal expenditure and total daily voluntary muscular;activity. For example, the male nurse had a voluntary muscular activity level;for the day of 800 kcal, and his daily expenditure was 1,632 kcal. Therefore;his SDA for the day would be an;estimated 243 kcal.;(Your basal energy;expenditure + Your voluntary daily physical activity)? 0.10 =;kcal/day;(your;SDA);Add together;your BMR and your voluntary muscular energy expenditure.;BMR + voluntary muscular;activity =;kcal/day;Total;Daily Energy Requirements;Your total daily energy;requirements are the sum;of your BMR + voluntary;muscular activity + SDA =;kcal/day;Determining;Your Daily Caloric Intake;Before;you can draw any conclusions about your daily energy balance, you must;determine your total energy intake. This can be estimated by recording your;total consumption of nutrients and determining their kcal values. Fill in Table;5.1 beginning with the first meal of your day and ending with the last snack;you consume. The estimate of your kcal intake can be determined by using the;tables found in many supermarkets, bookstores, and libraries. Such tables are;usually referred to as pocket calorie counters.;Compare your total daily;energy requirement with your actual kilocalorie intake per day;Total daily energy;requirement ? Actual kilocalorie intake = Gain/maintenance/loss;If these two figures are the same, you are meeting;your energy requirements and maintaining your weight. If your total daily;caloric intake is greater than your caloric requirement, you are exceeding your;energy requirements and, therefore, gaining weight. The opposite is true if you;are not meeting your caloric requirement. Therefore, you are losing weight.;Table 5.1;Total Energy Intake;Food;Food Serving Size;Energy kcal;Breakfast;Lunch;Dinner;Other;Total =;Determining;Your Daily Energy Balance;Name;Lab section;Your;instructor may collect these end-of-exercise questions. If so, please fill in;your name and lab section.;End-of-Exercise;Questions;1. What is;basal metabolic rate?;2.;Do basal metabolic rates differ;between males and females? On what evidence can you base your answer?;3.;What factors are involved in accurately determining your BMR?;4.;What is specific dynamic action?;5. If;your total kilocalorie intake per day is higher than your total kilocalorie;requirements, what happens to your weight?;6. What can you;do to bring about an energy balance?;7. Other;than kilocalories, what information is important in determining whether or not;you are consuming a healthy diet?;8. What;resources are available to help you develop a balanced diet?;Part;2 - BMI;A: Define;BMI-You must define BMI and not just as a general definition indicating its;relationship to height and weight. Please also do not forget to define the;actual term BMI!;B: Calculate;BMI- Do no use an online calculator ? show your actual math calculations.;Please include all stages of the math calculations associated with determining;your BMI.;C;Tie it all together. Consider the diet;plan that you created in Table 5.1 for the determining total energy input. Based on your own BMI and how you fall;according to the standard tables (underweight, normal, overweight, obese);evaluate your dietary plan. Build on the caloric intake you?ve already listed;to include an exercise plan, being as specific as possible. The goal of this section is to develop a plan;that incorporated all of the components of a sound fitness program;(flexibility, endurance, strength training, body fat, and cardiovascular) as;well as discuss specific exercises that you planned on doing.
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