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Question;Question 1.;?;Selection bias is most likely to occur in;which type of study????Answer...;Prospective cohort;studies...;Retrospective cohort;studies...;Case-control studies...;Both retrospective;cohort and case-control studies.;?;2 points;Question 2.;?;A case-control study is being conducted;where 10% of the cases and controls actually had the exposure of interest.;However, when asked about the exposure, only 7% of each group recalled the;exposure correctly. This inaccuracy, represented equally between cases and;controls, could be called:???Answer...;Differential;misclassification bias...;Nondifferential;misclassification bias...;Surveillance bias...;Selection bias.;?;2 points;Question 3.;?;When assessing the results of a study;what are the possible explanations for the observed results????Answer...;The observed results;may be due to chance (i.e., random error)...;The observed results;may be true...;The observed results;may be due to bias...;The observed results;may be due to confounding...;The 3rd and 4th;answers only...;The 1st, 3rd, and 4th;answers only...;All of the above.;?;2 points;Question 4.;?;If a study fails to detect a significant;difference between treatment A and treatment B when in fact the treatments do;differ, the following type of error has occurred.???Answer...;Type I error...;Type II error...;Treatment;discrimination error...;Difference testing;error.;?;2 points;Question 5.;?;Controls are needed in a case-control;study to evaluate whether the frequency of a factor or past exposure among the;cases is different from that among comparable persons who do not have the;disease under investigation.???Answer?True;?False??;2 points;Question 6.;?;Controlled clinical trials enable;researchers to:???Answer...;Derive knowledge about;the origins of a disease...;Control the level of;exposure to a treatment...;More accurately;identify cause and effect...;All of the above.;?;2 points;Question 7.;?;A case-control study was conducted to;identify risk factors for the common cold. Living with children under the age;of 10 was one of the risk factors evaluated. The odds ratio for this;association was 9.0, and the 95% confidence interval ranged from 1.2 to 85.;Which of the following statements is true about this association????Answer...;People who lived with a;child under the age of 10 had 9 times the risk of getting a cold compared to;people who did not live with children under the age of 10....;The P value was greater;than 0.05....;The P value was less;than 0.05....;The association was;statistically significant....;The true strength of;association could be estimated more precisely if the study were repeated with;a larger sample....;The 1st and 2nd answers;only...;The 1st and 3rd answers;only...;The 1st, 3rd, 4th;and 5th answers only...;The 1st, 2nd, and 5th;answers only.;?;2 points;Question 8.;?;What sources can be used to identify;controls for a case-control study????Answer...;General population...;Hospital/clinic;patients...;Friends and relatives...;All of the above.;?;2 points;Question 9.;?;When assessing a positive relationship;between alcohol consumption and oral cancer using a case-control study;increasing the sample size of the study will result in which of the following????Answer...;A lower P value...;A greater odds ratio...;A smaller 95%;confidence interval...;A higher disease;prevalence...;The 1st and 3rd answers;only...;The 2nd and 4th;answers only...;The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd;answers only...;All of the above...;None of the above.;?;2 points;Question 10.;?;A southwestern state passed a law in 1988;making it illegal to drive without wearing a seat belt. To determine whether;the law had made a difference in terms of mortality, a researcher in the state;health department compiled data on deaths due to vehicle crashes in the 5 years;before 1988 and in the 5 years after 1988. What type of study is this????Answer...;Randomized controlled;trial...;Concurrent cohort study...;Retrospective cohort;study...;Case-control study...;Nested case-control;study...;Cross-sectional study...;Ecologic study.;?;2 points;Question 11.;?;Any systematic error in the design or;conduct of a study that results in an incorrect estimate of an exposure's;effect on the risk of disease is called:???Answer...;Confounding...;Bias...;Stratification...;Effect modification.;?;2 points;Question 12.;?;For a variable to be a confounder, it;must be:???Answer...;Associated with the;disease (outcome) under study...;Associated with the;risk factor (exposure) under study...;Both of the above...;Neither of the above.;?;2 points;Question 13.;?;Which one of the following statements;best describes a limitation of cross-sectional studies????Answer...;No information on;individuals...;Unclear temporal;relationship between exposure and disease...;No comparison group.;?;2 points;Question 14.;?;The primary difference between an;experimental and observational study is:???Answer...;The investigator is;blinded" (prevented from knowing the subjects' true exposure;status until the end of the study) in an experimental study but not in an;observational study....;The investigator;controls the subject's exposure in an experimental study but not in an;observational study....;The investigator;controls the subject's outcome in an experimental study but not in an;observational study....;Experimental studies;are conducted with animals, observational studies are conducted with humans..;?;2 points;Question 15.;?;Over the past 2 years, efforts were made;to identify and determine the mortality and morbidity experience of several;thousand military personnel who were stationed in the Persian Gulf and;elsewhere in Europe in 1991. What type of study is this????Answer...;Case-control study...;Prospective cohort;study...;Retrospective cohort;study...;Randomized trial.;?;2 points;Question 16.;?;A cross-sectional study of the;relationship between blood type and the risk of cataracts will produce;misleading results because you cannot tell the correct temporal relationship;between the exposure (blood type) and disease (cataracts).???Answer?True;?False??;2 points;Question 17.;?;Researchers collected baseline;information on oral contraceptive use from a group of female college seniors;from a large university. Each year for the next 20 years, the women were;followed up on to determine whether or not the participants had developed any;of several conditions. What type of study is this????Answer...;Case-control study...;Prospective cohort;study...;Retrospective cohort;study...;Randomized trial...;Cross-sectional study.;?;2 points;Question 18.;?;The healthy worker effect is a form of;what type of bias????Answer...;Selection bias...;Control-selection bias...;Interviewer/recording;bias...;Surveillance;diagnostic, or referral bias.;?;2 points;Question 19.;?;When chance, bias, and confounding have;been ruled out as alternative explanations for an association, we may conclude;that the association is causal.???Answer?True;?False??;2 points;Question 20.;?;Advantages of a case-control design;include all the following except:???Answer...;It is appropriate for;studying rare diseases....;It is appropriate for;studying rare exposures....;The odds ratio can;provide an estimate of the relative risk....;Multiple exposures can;be studied.


Paper#62939 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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