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Mendellian Genetics

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Question;Experiment1:Punnettsquarecrosses;Procedure;1.;Setupandcomplete;Punnettsquaresforeachofthefollowing;crosses:(rememberY=yellow;andy=blue);YYandYy YYandyy;a);Whataretheresultingphenotypes?;b) Arethereanybluekernels?;Howcanyoutell?;2.;Setupandcomplete;aPunnettsquares;foracrossoftwooftheF1from1babove;a) WhatarethegenotypesoftheF2generation?;b) Whataretheirphenotypes?;c);Aretheremoreorlessbluekernels;thanintheF1generation?;3.;Identifythefourpossible;gametesproducedbythefollowingindividuals;a) YYSs;b) YySs;c);CreateaPunnettsquareusingthesegametes;asPanddeterminethegenotypesoftheF1;d) Whatarethephenotypes?Whatistheratioofthosephenotypes?;4.;Youhavebeenprovidedwith4bagsofdifferent;coloredbeads.Pour50ofthebluebeadsandyellow;beadsintobeaker#1andmixthemaround.Pour50oftheredbeadsandgreenbeadsinbeaker#2andmixthem.;?;#1containsbeadsthatareeither;yelloworblue.;?;#2containsbeadsthatareeithergreenorred.;?;Bothcontainapproximatelythesamenumberofeachcolored;bead.;?;Thesecolorscorrespondtothefollowingtraits(rememberthatY/yisforkernelcolorandS/sisforsmooth/wrinkled);?;Yellow(Y)vs.Blue(y) Green(S)vs.Red(s).;A. MonohybridCross:Randomly(withoutlooking)take2beadsoutof#1.;?;Thisisthegenotypeofindividual#1,record;thisinformation.Donotputthosebeadsbackintothebeaker.;?;Repeatthisforindividual#2.Thesetwogenotypes;areyourparents;forthenextgeneration.SetupaPunnettsquareanddeterminethegenotypesandphenotypesforthiscross.;?;Repeatthisprocess4times(5total).;Putthebeadsbackintheirrespectivebeakerswhenfinished.;a) Howmuchgenotypic;variationdoyoufindintherandomly;pickedparentsofyourcrosses?;b) Howmuchintheoffspring?;c);Howmuchphenotypicvariation?;d);Istheratioofobservedphenotypesthesameastheratio;ofpredictedphenotypes?Whyorwhynot?;e) Poolalloftheoffspringfromyour5replicates.Howmuchphenotypicvariationdoyoufind?;f);Whatisthedifferencebetweengenesandalleles?;h);Organismsheterozygousforarecessive;traitareoftencalled;carriersofthattrait.Whatdoesthatmean?;i);Inpeas,greenpods(G)aredominantoveryellowpods.Ifahomozygousdominant;plantiscrossed;withahomozygousrecessiveplant,whatwillbethephenotype;oftheF1generation?IftwoplantsfromtheF1generationarecrossed;whatwillthephenotypeoftheiroffspring;be?;B.;DihybridCross:Randomly(withoutlooking)take2beadsoutofbeaker;#1AND2beadsoutofbeaker#2.;?;Thesefourbeadsrepresentthegenotypeofindividual#1,recordthisinformation.;?;Repeatthisprocesstoobtainthegenotypeofindividual#2.;a) Whataretheirphenotypes?;b) Whatisthegenotypeofthegametestheycanproduce?;?;SetupaPunnett;squareanddeterminethegenotypesandphenotypesforthiscross.;c);Whatisyourpredictedratio;ofgenotypes?Hint:thinkbacktoourexample;dihybridcross;?;Repeatthisprocess4times(foratotalof5trials).;d) Howsimilar;aretheobservedphenotypesineachreplicate?;e) Howsimilar;aretheyifyoupoolyourdatafromeachofthe5replicates?;f);Isitcloserorfurther;fromyourprediction?;g);Didtheresults;fromthemonohybridordihybrid;crossmostcloselymatchyourpredictedratioofphenotypes?;h) Basedontheseresults;whatwouldyouexpectifyouwerelookingatacrossof5,10,20independentlysortedgenes?;i);Whyisitsoexpensivetoproduceahybridplantseed?;j);Incertainbacteria,anovalshape(S)isdominantoverroundandthickcellwalls(T)aredominantoverthin.Showacrossbetweenaheterozygousoval,thickcellwalledbacteriawitharound,thincellwalledbacteria.;Whatarethephenotype;oftheF1andF2offspring?;5.;Thelawofindependentassortmentallowsforgenetic;recombination.Thefollowingequationcanbeusedtodetermine;thetotalnumberofpossible;genotypecombinationsforanyparticularnumberofgenes;2g=Numberofpossiblegenotypecombinations(where;?g?isthenumberofgenes)1gene: 21=2genotypes;2 genes:22=4genotypes;3 genes:23=8genotypes;Consider;thefollowinggenotype:YySsTt;Wehavenowaddedthegeneforheight;Tall(T)orShort;(t).;a) Howmanydifferent;gametecombinationscanbeproduced?;b) Manytraits(phenotypes),likeeyecolor,arecontrolledbymultiplegenes.;Ifeyecolorwerecontrolledbythenumber;ofgenesindicatedbelow,howmanypossiblegenotypecombinationswouldtherebe?;5;10;20

 

Paper#62997 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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