Question;Problem Set 3;Meiosis and Genetics;17. In a particular breed of dog;the dominant allele B produces black coat color, while b produces brown.;If;a litter of puppies has both black and brown offspring, what are the possible;genotypes of the parents?If;a black and brown dog can produce black and brown puppies when they mate, what;should be the ratio of black puppies to brown puppies in a litter?18. Tongue rolling is a dominant;trait in humans (T), while the inability to tongue roll is recessive. A woman;who can roll her tongue marries a man who cannot. Their first child is also not;a tongue roller.a. What are the phenotypes of each;parent, and the first child?b. What is the probability that;their second child will be a tongue roller?c. A non-tongue roller? 19. In a test cross with the;following pea plant (Gg Tt RR Ss), where genes show independent assortment:a. What is the expected frequency;of gg tt Rr ss progeny?b. What is the expected frequency;of progeny that are heterozygous for all of the genes?20. Color blindness is a recessive;sex-linked trait. A color blind woman has a normal mother.a. What is the genotype of the;color blind woman?s father?b. The color blind woman marries a;normal man. What is the probability that their sons will be colorblind?c. What is the;probability that their daughters will be colorblind?21.;Use the following pedigree to determine the probability that IV-1 (child yet to;be22. Assuming the following;pedigrees, is the trait autosomal or sex-linked, and dominant or recessive?a. b.;23. Incomplete dominance _________.;Is the presences of three or more alleles of a gene;among individuals of a populationCauses heterozygous offspring to have an phenotype that;is intermediate between the two parental phenotypesIs when two genes at different loci both affect the;same phenotypeCauses there to be a lack of production of heterozygous;offspringUse the following information to;answer questions 24-25:Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD);is an X-linked recessive disorder that causes an individual?s muscles to;degenerate over time. A male DMD patient;has two unaffected parents. 24.;Fill in the pedigree of this family using Xd for the Duchenne;allele, XD for the ?normal? allele, X? for any unknown X;alleles, and Y for Y chromosomes.;25. It turns out the son with DMD;also has Klinefelter syndrome. What;nondisjunction event would account for both disorders?;a.;NDJ in Meiosis I of father;b.;NDJ is Meiosis II of father;c.;NDJ in Meiosis I of mother;d.;NDJ is Meiosis II of mother;26. You?re a genetic;counselor. A mother and father both with;type AB blood have a child with blood type O. A second type-O child was born six;years later. The father is upset and;worried that, perhaps, he is not the biological father. After extensive genotyping, you determine;that he is most likely the father of both children. This is an example of the ?Bombay;phenotype?. A separate locus codes for a;precursor to the A & B antigens (the H antigen). If the child is hh, no H antigen is made and;the child will be phenotypically type O.;What is the name of the genetic phenomenon that accounts for the Bombay;phenotype?;27. Achondroplasia is an autosomal;dominant form of dwarfism. People with;achondroplasia are heterozygotes because carrying two copies of the dominant;mutant allele is fatal during embryogenesis.;Two people with achondroplasia decide to start a family.;a. Fill out a Punnett;square for this couple.;b. What is the probability that their first;child born will be of average stature?;c. What is the;probability that this couple has two daughters with achondroplasia and one son;of average stature in that order?;d. What is the;probability that this couple has two children with achondroplasia and one of;average stature in any order?;28. Two deaf people have three;children together, none of whom are deaf.;What is the name for the genetic phenomenon that makes this possible?;29. Individuals that inherit a single inactive;retinoblastoma (Rb) allele from one of their parents have a 90% chance of;developing multiple eye tumors as a child.;The allele can be inherited from either the mother or father and affect;both male and female children equally.;a. Based on this information alone;what is the mode of inheritance?;b. As it;turns out, the Rb gene encodes a type of protein called a tumor;suppressor. Children only get eye tumors;when both Rb alleles make a nonfunctional protein. Knowing this, do you think the mode of;inheritance is different than what you previously thought? How so?;30. What does it mean when two genes are ?linked??;31. As a human, you;have 23 pairs of chromosome. For each;pair, one chromosome was maternally derived and the other was paternally;derived. During meiosis, chromosome;pairs are segregated randomly into haploid cells so that the maternal and;paternal chromosome pairs are split up.;a. What is the probability that a;human gamete has 20 of 23 maternally derived chromosomes?;b. Which Mendelian principle is;responsible for the number of maternally-derived and paternally-derived;chromosomes that end up in gametes?;c. What is the probability of having;at least one maternally derived chromosome in a gamete?;METABOLISM;Pyruvate (pyruvic acid), the;final product of glycolysis, has to enter the mitochondria to participate in;the Kreb?s cycle.;Which of the following statements;about its entry is true and which is false?;If false, correct it so that it;is true.;1. Pyruvate moves by facilitated diffusion that;goes against the concentration gradient.;2. Pyruvate is a lipid soluble molecule moving;down its concentration gradient.;3. There must be transport molecules in the;mitochondrial membrane.;4. The concentration of pyruvate is likely to be;higher inside the mitochondrion than outside.;5.;During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill from food? NADH? electron;transport chain? oxygen.;6.;Prokaryotes don?t do glycolysis because they lack mitochondrial;membranes.;7. Photosynthesis is to;cellular respiration as _________.;a. exergonic is to endergonic.;b. amino acids are to carbohydrates.;c. increasing entropy is to decreasing entropy.;d. anabolic is to catabolic.;e. none of the above.;8. Rank the following compounds according to their oxidation;state from LEAST oxidized toMOST;oxidized;carbon dioxide, pyruvate, glucoseglucose, carbon dioxide, pyruvatepyruvate, carbon dioxide, glucose,pyruvate;glucose, carbon dioxideglucose, pyruvate, carbon dioxide;The Krebs cycle yields NADH and FADH2 but not ATP or;GTP. Every reaction in cellular respiration is spontaneous.One of the reasons that glycolysis is believed to be;one of the most ancient of metabolic processes is that glycolysis neither uses;nor needs O2.Glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic;cells and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells. During aerobic respiration, energy is gently;transferred from food molecules to ATP molecules, during photosynthesis, light;energy is used to generate ATP molecules which are used to create food;molecules.For #14-18: An;organism is discovered that consumes a considerable amount of sugar, yet does;not gain much weight when denied air. Curiously, the organism seems to survive;even in the absence of air, and the consumption of sugar increases as air is;removed from the organism's environment. When returned to normal air, the;organism does fine. Which of the following could describe the organism?It is a human cell.It may be used to produce ethanol.It is a facultative anaerobe.The organism obviously lacks the Krebs cycle and;electron transport chain.It must use a molecule other than oxygen to accept;electrons from the electron transport chain.;19. Draw a generic;eukaryotic cell and a generic prokaryotic cell.;Label where the following take place;glycolysis, fermentation, pyruvate processing, Kreb?s cycle;electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation;20. Here is an;abstract from an article by Rui-Hua,et;al.Inhibition of glycolysis in cancer cells: A novel strategy to overcome;drug resistance associated with mitochondrial respiratory defect and hypoxia.;2005 Cancer Research vol. 65, pp. 613-621.;Cancer cells generally exhibit increased glycolysis for ATP;generation (the Warburg effect) due in part to mitochondrial respiration injury;and hypoxia, which are frequently associated with resistance to therapeutic;agents. Here, we report that inhibition of glycolysis severely depletes ATP in;cancer cells, especially in clones of cancer cells with mitochondrial;respiration defects, and leads to rapid dephosphorylation of the;glycolysis-apoptosis integrating molecule BAD at Ser112, relocalization of BAX;to mitochondria, and massive cell death. Importantly, inhibition of glycolysis;effectively kills colon cancer cells and lymphoma cells in a hypoxic;environment in which the cancer cells exhibit high glycolytic activity and decreased;sensitivity to common anticancer agents. Depletion of ATP by glycolytic;inhibition also potently induced apoptosis in multidrug-resistant cells;suggesting that deprivation of cellular energy supply may be an effective way;to overcome multidrug resistance. Our study shows a promising therapeutic;strategy to effectively kill cancer cells and overcome drug resistance. Because;the Warburg effect and hypoxia are frequently seen in human cancers, these;findings may have broad clinical implications.;A. How can cells;generate ATP in the absence of functioning mitochondria?;B. How much ATP can;be generated in the absence of mitochondria?;C. What would happen;to the pH in cancer cells due to this metabolism?
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