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BIO - Patient Scenario (Upstream/Downstream) Assignment




Question;Patient Scenario;(Upstream/Downstream) Assignment;Addresses Learning Outcomes;Use;knowledge of biological principles and the Scientific Method to ask and;answer relevant questions about human health and disease;Analyze;information to distinguish between diseased and healthy structure and;functioning.;Analyze;how internal and external factors cause disruption of healthy body;function, leading to disease and disorders.;THE SCENARIO;Mr. Smith is 60 years old. He was;diagnosed with prostate cancer five years ago. Over the past few days, Mr.;Smith has been feeling increasingly tired and has also been suffering from a;headache that did not respond to over-the-counter medications. He scheduled an;appointment with his physician.;His physician performed a physical;examination and recommendedabattery of laboratory tests and imaging;procedures.;His blood pressure is 165/100;mmHg. MRI reveals metastasis of prostate cancer to osseous tissue.;Abdominal CT shows obstruction of intestine due to nodular enlargement of;adrenal glands.;Thetable below showsReference;values in the right-hand column. These values reflect the normal range of;values for patients without disease or illness. The center column;reflects the resulting values for medical test results obtained for Mr. Smith.;Take note whether Mr. Smith?s values;are within normal limits.;Laboratory results from Mr. Smith?s second hospital admission and;medical tests show following findings;Mr. Smith;Reference Values;K+;2.6 mmol/L;3.8-4.9mmol/L;Hb;7.3 g/dl;13.8 to 18.2 g/dL;Hct;20.4%;45-52%;Platelet Count;20x109/L;150-400x109/L;HCO3;38 mmol/l;22-26 mmol/L;Urinary K+;70 mmol/L/24 hr;25-120 mmol/L/24 hr;Blood Glucose;460 mg/dl;64.8-104.4 mg/dL;Serum Aldosterone;1 ng/dl;<31 ng/dL;24 hour Urinary Aldosterone;8.4 mcg/24 hr;2.3-21.0 mcg/24 hr;Renin;2.1 ng/ml/hr;0.65-5.0 ng/ml/hr;ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone);1082 pg/ml;9-46 pg/ml;Cortisol;155.5 microg/dL;0-25 microg/dL;CONCLUSION AND DIAGNOSIS;Laboratory findings, MRI and CT confirmed;metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, hypertension and refractory hypokalemia due;to ectopic ACTH production. High levels of circulating cortisol caused;continuous activation of mineralocorticoid receptors resulting in hypokalemia;metabolic alkalosis and hypertension.;After reading provided scenario, answer;the following questions;1.;1.What are the;components of physical examination? Describe each component. (SeeModule 1, Topic 8, Part B.2);2.;2.Mr. Smith?s blood;pressure was 160/100 mmHg.;a.;How does a medical provider take or measure blood pressure?;b.;What do the top (numerator) and bottom (denominator) numbers mean in the;biological sense?;c.;What is the significance the size of these two numbers?;d.;Is Mr. Smith?s blood pressure within normal range? Explain how you;concluded whether Mr. Smith?s blood pressure is/is not within normal range.;e.;Discuss the possible health issues anticipated for a person with a blood;pressure of 165/100 mm Hg.;3.;3.Based on the data;provided, what laboratory tests were performed and what samples were taken from;the patient? Select one of the laboratory tests ordered for Mr. Smith and;discuss why Mr. Smith?s physician might have ordered the test and the;information she might have expected to obtain from that particular test.;4.;4. Analyze Mr. Smith's values;a.Compare;Mr. Smith?s values with reference values and indicate whether Mr. Smith?s;values are below, above, or within normal range (compare Mr. Smith?s values;with the Reference values) for each laboratory tests in the table above from;the second set of tests.;b. Select one of the values outside of;normal range from the table above and discuss possible medical concerns related;to the identified change in Mr. Smith?s values.;5. 5.;What imaging procedures did Mr. Smith;undergo? Discuss the distinctions and similarities between the two different;imaging approaches. What were the results of imaging procedures in Mr. Smith?s;case?;6.;Select one of the medical terms from the CONCLUSION and DIAGNOSIS section above;and define what it means. Also, discuss, in your own words and based on;what you can gather about Mr. Smith?s condition, how the laboratory or imaging;tests helped with drawing a conclusion or making the diagnosis. In your own words;discuss how medical providers use the scientific method to come to work through;the examination and diagnosis of a patient.;You should write a short paper;addressing all five questions and submit it under "Assignments".;Your grade will depend upon the content, clarity and originality of responses;written in your own words. Good writing practices, including the use of correct;grammar, sentence and paragraph structure, and punctuation, and presence of;logical reasoning, will account for a portion of your grade.;Cite all sources in APA format within;your answer text as well as full citations in APA format at the end of the;assignment.;Your grade for theshort;paperbased on presented scenario will be based on the following;components;Answered;all six questions and all sub-parts of each question and provides correct;or logical answers to each question?up to 60 points;Student;provides original, detailed responses, written in student?s own words;showing presence of logical reasoning ? up to 24 points;Student;incorporates terms and concepts learned from assigned materials ? up to 8;points;Student;correctly cites resources in APA format ? up to 4 points;Form;? grammar, spelling, style ? up to 4 points


Paper#63024 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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