Part 1;BIO156;Introductory Biology for Allied Health;Final Exam;- Part 1;1;of 45;Mendel's;law of independent assortment states that __________.;chromosomes;sort independently of each other during mitosis and meiosis;genes;sort independently of each other in animals, but not in plants;independent;sorting of genes produces polyploid plants under some circumstances;each;pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during;gamete formation;None of;the choices are correct;Question;2;of 45;Individual;features of all organisms are the result of __________.;genetics;the;environment;genetics;and cytoplasmic determinants;the;environment and individual needs;genetics;and the environment;Question;3;of 45;How many;sex chromosomes are in a human gamete?;one;two;three;four;five;Question;4;of 45;Any gene;located on a sex chromosome __________.;is;called a recessive gene;is;called a sex-linked gene;is;called a dominant allele;will;exhibit pleiotropy;will;exhibit codominance;Question;5;of 45;Why are;sex-linked conditions more common in men than in women?;Men;acquire two copies of the defective gene during fertilization.;Men;need to inherit only one copy of the recessive allele for the condition to be;fully expressed.;Women;simply do not develop the disease regardless of their genetic composition.;The sex;chromosomes are more active in men than in women.;None of;the choices are correct.;Question;6;of 45;A;colorblind woman mates with a man who is not colorblind. All of the sons and;none of the daughters are colorblind. What is the best explanation of this;result?;The;gene for color vision is incompletely dominant to the gene for sex;determination.;The;gene for color vision is completely dominant to the gene for sex;determination.;The;gene for color vision is codominant with the gene for sex determination.;The;gene for color vision is linked to the X chromosome.;The gene;for color vision is linked to the Y chromosome.;Question;7;of 45;Karyotyping;shows;chromosomes as they appear in metaphase of meiosis II;can;reveal alterations in chromosome number;examines;points of crossing over;reveals;the results of independent orientation of chromosomes during meiosis I;reveals;the presence of cancerous genes;Question;8;of 45;If a;chromosome fragment breaks off and is lost from the original chromosome, the;resulting chromosomal abnormality is called an) __________.;deletion;inversion;translocation;nondisjunction;reciprocal;translocation;Question;9;of 45;If short;hair L) is dominant to long hair l), animals LL and Ll;have the same __________.;genotypes;phenotypes;alleles;genes;chromatids;Question;10;of 45;One of;Mendel's defining ideas was the theory of segregation. This idea __________.;deals;with the alleles governing two different traits;applies;only to linked genes;applies;only to sex-linked genes;explains;the behavior of a pair of alleles during meiosis;applies;to the partitioning of proteins;Question;11;of 45;If short;hair L) is dominant to long hair l), then what fraction of the;offspring produced by a cross of Ll x ll will be homozygous;dominant?;1/2;1/4;1/3;1/8;None;Question;12;of 45;If a;child belonged to blood Type O, he or she could NOT have been produced by which;set of parents?;Type A;mother and Type B father;Type A;mother and Type O father;Type AB;mother and Type O father;Type O;mother and Type O father;Type B;mother and Type O father;Question;13;of 45;Amniocentesis;involves sampling __________.;the;fetus directly;the;fetal cells floating in the amniotic fluid;sperm;blood;cells;urine;Question;14;of 45;Which of;the following genotypes is said to be homozygous?;AaBB;aaBB;aaBb;aABB;Aabb;Question;15;of 45;Which of;the following is NOT a true statement about genes?;Genes;are located on chromosomes.;Genes;are inherited independently of the chromosomes.;Genes;are arranged in linear sequence on chromosomes.;A gene;is a discrete sequence of DNA on a chromosome.;Genes;code for proteins.;Question;16;of 45;A;karyotype __________.;compares;one set of chromosomes to another;is a;visual display of chromosomes arranged according to size;is a;photograph of cells undergoing mitosis during anaphase;of a;normal human cell shows 48 chromosomes;is a;representation of a cell in apoptosis;Question;17;of 45;A woman;heterozygous for colorblindness an X-linked recessive allele marries a man with;normal color vision. What is the probability that their first child will be;colorblind?;25;percent;50 percent;75;percent;100;percent;0;percent;Question;18;of 45;What;could the children of a colorblind woman and a man with normal vision be?;All;will be colorblind.;None;will be colorblind.;Daughters;will be color-blind and sons will be of normal vision.;Sons;will be colorblind and daughters will be of normal vision.;Half of;the sons will be colorblind and all daughters will be colorblind.;Question;19;of 45;DNA;replication __________.;occurs;by the addition of nucleotides to the end of the DNA molecule;results;in the formation of four new DNA strands;produces;two daughter DNA molecules that are complementary to each other;uses;each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand;begins;when two DNA molecules join together to exchange segments;Question;20;of 45;If one;strand of DNA is CGGTAC, the corresponding strand would be __________.;GCCTAG;CGGTAC;GCCAUC;TAACGT;GCCATG;Question;21;of 45;Which one;of the following sequences best describes the flow of information when a gene;directs the synthesis of a cellular component?;RNA?;DNA? RNA? protein;DNA?;RNA? protein;protein;? RNA? DNA;DNA?;amino acid? RNA? protein;DNA?;tRNA? mRNA? protein;Question;22;of 45;Which one;of the following best describes the sequence of events of translation?;codon;recognition? translocation? peptide bond formation? termination;peptide;bond formation? codon recognition? translocation? termination;codon;recognition? peptide bond formation? translocation? termination;codon;recognition? peptide bond formation? termination? translocation;peptide;bond formation? translocation? codon recognition? termination;Question;23;of 45;In DNA;correct complementary base pairing would occur between __________.;cytosine;and uracil;adenine;and guanine;adenine;and uracil;adenine;and thymine;cytosine;and adenine;Question;24;of 45;Which of;the following is NOT true of DNA polymerase?;Adds;new nucleotides to a developing strand.;Is an;enzyme.;Creates;the energy it needs by breaking adenine-guanine bonds.;Proofreads;DNA strands to see that they are correct.;Is a;protein.;Question;25;of 45;The;movement of DNA fragments in a gel electrophoresis experiment is based on;the;amount of carbon in the fragment;the;size and charge of the molecules;the;number of organic rings in the fragment;their;ease in going into a salt solution;the;sugars in the fragment;Question;26;of 45;Which of;the following is the most precise explanation of how genes work?;One;gene controls one complete physical characteristic.;Human;metabolic defects may arise because of absent or defective enzymes.;One;gene controls one amino acid.;One;gene codes for the amino acid sequence of one polypeptide chain.;Genes;are made of RNA.;Question;27;of 45;The form;of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is;assembled is called __________.;messenger;RNA;nuclear;RNA;ribosomal;RNA;transfer;RNA;siRNA;Question;28;of 45;Which;nucleotide base is found in RNA but not in DNA?;thymine;deoxyribose;uracil;guanine;adenine;Question;29;of 45;Transcription;occurs;on the surface of the ribosome;is the;final process in the assembly of a protein;occurs;during the synthesis of any type of RNA from a DNA template;is;catalyzed by DNA polymerase;occurs;in the mitochondria;Question;30;of 45;Which of;the following could NOT be an RNA transcript?;AUGCGU;ATGCGT;UACGCA;UAGCGU;GGCUAU;Question;31;of 45;Which of;the following kinds of RNA is directly responsible for carrying specific amino;acids to the ribosomes in protein synthesis?;tRNA;hnRNA;rRNA;mRNA;snRNA;Question;32;of 45;What kind;of virus is HIV, the AIDS virus)?;a;herpes virus;a;paramyxovirus;a;retrovirus;a;complex virus;a;provirus;Question;33;of 45;HIV;delivers its greatest damage to __________.;the;adrenal glands;pancreatic;cells;nervous;tissue;gametes;white;blood cells;Question;34;of 45;HIV is;responsible for _____.;PKU;TB;STD;CPR;AIDS;Question;35;of 45;Restriction;enzymes __________.;edit;proteins;cut DNA;at specific sites;stop;transcription;bind;together strands of DNA;bind;RNA fragments together;Question;36;of 45;Gel;electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their __________.;nucleotide;sequence;solubility;in water;ability;to bind to mRNA;solubility;in the gel;size;Question;37;of 45;Which of;the following areas of research will benefit from the human genome project?;understanding;human evolution;understanding;human embryonic development;improving;the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of heart disease, cancer, and other;common ailments;All of;the choices are correct.;None of;the choices are correct.;Question;38;of 45;Which of;the following best defines the term transgenic animal?;an;animal that is the first of its kind to bear a particular allele;an;animal in which a genetic defect has been corrected using recombinant DNA;therapy;an;animal containing a gene from a third "parent," which may even be;another species;an;animal containing genes from both its parents;an;animal containing genes from three or more species;Question;39;of 45;Genetic;variation within a population is developed and maintained because of;random;mutations;recombination;because of sexual reproduction;crossing;over;All of;the above;None of;these are valid ways of creating variation;Question;40;of 45;The prime;goal of current work in genetic engineering is to __________.;eliminate;antibiotic resistance in bacteria;isolate;disease-causing plasmids in bacteria;modify;cells to correct a defect or produce a functional product;transfer;genes from viruses to other cells;study;only cancer and bring about a cure;Question;41;of 45;Viruses;that infect bacteria are ______.;retroviruses;enveloped;viruses;emerging;viruses;proviruses;bacteriophages;Question;42;of 45;Which of;these can act as a vector to introduce new genes into a cell?;humulin;GM;PCR;clones;plasmids;Question;43;of 45;Which of;the following is a major category of animal tissue?;epithelial;plasma;bone;cardiac;neurons;Question;44;of 45;Maintaining;the volume and composition of body fluids is the direct responsibility of which;of the following systems?;integumentary;immune;digestive;urinary;respiratory;Question;45;of 45;Which of;the following organs is NOT in the abdominal cavity?;stomach;liver;intestine;appendix;heart;Part2;1;of 45;The basic;structural and functional part of the kidney is the __________.;Bowman's;capsule;nephron;glomerulus;urinary;bladder;ascending;aorta;Question;2;of 45;Which one;of the following types of tissue stores fat in the body?;blood;cartilage;bone;adipose;fibrous;connective tissue;Question;3;of 45;Which of;the following is true of a typical skeletal muscle?;Contraction;is involuntary.;It is;found in the walls of organs such as the digestive tract.;Its;fibers do not have a striped appearance under the microscope.;It can;be enlarged by exercise.;It is;only found in heart tissue.;Question;4;of 45;Which;type of tissue forms a communication and coordination system within the body?;nervous;blood;epithelial;connective;muscle;Question;5;of 45;Homeostasis;is the;maintenance of a constant internal state;only;comes into play when you are ill;is a;pathological condition;is the;maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment;is the;way the internal environment influences the external environment;Question;6;of 45;What are;the four fundamental types of body tissues?;connective;cardiac, nervous, and adipose tissue.;connective;epithelial, nervous, and muscle tissue.;epithelial;hormonal, cellular, and bone tissue.;epithelial;glandular, muscle, and nervous tissue.;connective;neurons, muscle, and cartilage tissue.;Question;7;of 45;What is;the main function of connective tissue?;support;movement;protection;response;to stimuli;covering;Question;8;of 45;Which of;the following is NOT a function of the skin?;protection;from invasion by bacteria;temperature;regulation;sensing;the world around us;protection;from physical injury;production;of hormones promoting tanning;Question;9;of 45;What are;the two main divisions of the skeletal system?;cranial;and axial;vertebral;and appendicular;appendicular;and axial;axial;and articular;articular;and cranial;Question;10;of 45;Which of;the following carry incoming messages toward the cell body of a neuron?;axons;dendrites;actin;filaments;myosin;filaments;supporting;cells;Question;11;of 45;The four;stages of food processing are, in order;ingestion;absorption, elimination, digestion;ingestion;elimination, digestion, absorption;ingestion;digestion, absorption, elimination;digestion;absorption, ingestion, elimination;elimination;absorption, digestion, ingestion;Question;12;of 45;Once an;action potential is triggered, the first major chemical change is __________.;a;reversal of the membrane polarity, with the interior of the cell becoming positive;a;reversal of the membrane polarity, with the interior of the cell becoming;negative;an;increase in the negative charge inside the neuron;an;increase in the positive charge inside the neuron;propagation;of an impulse;Question;13;of 45;The;function of the sphincter at the downstream end of the stomach is to;retain;acid chime in the stomach until pepsin digestion is complete;release;bile into the duodenum when chime is present;release;pancreatic secretions into the duodenum when chime is present;release;bile and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum when chime is present;release;acid chime into the duodenum in periodic squirts;Question;14;of 45;Muscles;are connected to bones by ______.;thick;filaments;ligaments;tendons;other;muscles;myofibrils;Question;15;of 45;A thick;filament consists of ______.;actin;actin;and regulatory proteins;myosin;myosin;and regulatory filaments;actin;and myosin;Question;16;of 45;When the;wall of the stomach fails to protect itself from erosion by gastric juice, the;result is __________.;heartburn;reverse;peristalsis;a;duodenal ulcer;nausea;a gastric;ulcer;Question;17;of 45;Most;nutrient absorption occurs in which part of the digestive system?;stomach;liver;pancreas;small;intestine;large;intestine;Question;18;of 45;Which of;the following is a junction between two neurons?;Schwann;cell;Chemical;synapse;Node of;Ranvier;Sodium;gate;Polarity;space;Question;19;of 45;Which of;the following organs of the digestive system is different from the other four;because it does NOT produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?;stomach;liver;esophagus;pancreas;Important;secretions are released by all of the above organs.;Question;20;of 45;Outnumbering;neurons by up to 50 to 1, which cells protect, insulate, and reinforce neurons?;sensory;cells;motor;cells;axon;cells;satellite;cells;supporting;cells;Question;21;of 45;All veins;carry __________.;blood;toward the heart;interstitial;fluid;blood;away from the heart;oxygen-rich;blood;oxygen-poor;blood;Question;22;of 45;Trace the;path of a red blood cell in a circuit that takes it from the capillary bed of;the right kidney to the capillary bed of the left kidney.;capillary;bed of right kidney?.venules?.veins?.right atrium?.right ventricle?.pulmonary;arteries?.capillaries of lungs?.pulmonary veins?.left atrium?.left;ventricle?.aorta?.arteries?.arterioles?. capillary bed of left kidney;capillary;bed of right kidney?.venules?.veins?.right atrium?.right ventricle?.;pulmonary veins?.capillaries of lungs?.pulmonary arteries?.left atrium?.left;ventricle?..aorta?.arteries?.arterioles?.capillary bed of left kidney;capillary;bed of right kidney?.venules?.v eins?..left atrium?.left ventricle?.;pulmonary arteries?.capillaries of lungs?.pulmonary veins?.right atrium?.;right ventricle?.aorta?.arteries?..arterioles?.capillary bed of left kidney;capillary;bed of right kidney?.arterioles?.arteries?.aorta?.right atrium?.right;ventricle?.pulmonary arteries?.capillaries of lungs?.pulmonary veins?.left;atrium ?.left ventricle?.veins?.venules?.capillary bed of left kidney;capillary;bed of right kidney?.venules?.veins?.left atrium?.left ventricle?. pulmonary;veins?.capillaries of lungs?.pulmonary arteries?.right atrium?. right;ventricle?.aorta?.arteries?.arterioles?.capillary bed of left kidney;Question;23;of 45;When you;examine fluid that you have drawn from a blood vessel, you find that it is;relatively high in carbon dioxide and waste products. Assuming that the fluid;comes from a healthy individual, you conclude that the blood vessel from which;you have drawn the blood could have been __________.;a;venule;an;artery;an;arteriole;the;aorta;either;an artery or an arteriole;Question;24;of 45;White;blood cells play a particularly important role in __________.;carrying;oxygen;carrying;carbon dioxide;blood;clotting;hemoglobin;transport;fighting;infections;Question;25;of 45;Temperature;regulation, hormone distribution, and exchanging nutrients and wastes with the;interstitial fluid are all functions of the _____ system.;respiratory;digestive;immune;circulatory;nervous;Question;26;of 45;Animals;need oxygen because it __________.;plays a;role in obtaining energy from food;counterbalances;the CO2 in the atmosphere;helps;animals synthesize proteins;is;necessary to make CO2;is;needed to deliver hemoglobin to all the cells in the body;Question;27;of 45;In the;human respiratory system, gas exchange occurs across the cells of the _____.;diaphragm;trachea;bronchi;pharynx;alveoli;Question;28;of 45;When you;hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to;the urge to breathe again?;rising;oxygen level;rising;carbon dioxide level;falling;oxygen level;falling;carbon dioxide level;both;rising carbon dioxide level and falling oxygen levels;Question;29;of 45;Which of;the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?;a group;of nonspecific antibodies;several;nonspecific amino acid toxins;several;nonspecific obstacles such as skin and mucous membranes;increased;production of certain hormones and changes in the blood circulation;an;increasing in the breathing rate;Question;30;of 45;When you;cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following;chemical alarm signals?;interferon;complement;histamine;pyrogens;anti-interferon;Question;31;of 45;Why do;diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?;The;rapid multiplication of the invading microorganisms results in extra heat;production.;The;inflammatory and immune responses result in extra heat production.;The;invading microorganisms trick the brain's temperature control center into;raising the temperature so they can grow better.;The;brain's temperature control center responds to inflammation by creating a hot;environment unfavorable to microorganisms.;Fevers;insure that you will stay in bed longer so that your body can recover from;the illness.;Question;32;of 45;The;appendix, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen are all parts of the;system.;immune;circulatory;excretory;renal;digestive;Question;33;of 45;Antibodies;are;shaped like the letter B;are;generalists in that any antibody can bind to any antigen;consist;of three polypeptide chains;assist;in destroying particular antigens;All of;the above are true;Question;34;of 45;Hormones;regulate __________.;growth;reproduction;water;balance;metabolism;all of;the above;Question;35;of 45;Which of;the following best describes the relationship of insulin to glucagon?;They;work together to prepare the body to deal with stress.;Insulin;stimulates the pancreas to secrete glucagon.;High;levels of insulin inhibit pancreatic secretion of glucagon.;They;are antagonistic hormones.;Insulin;is a steroid hormone, glucagon is a protein hormone.;Question;36;of 45;What;moves the human egg through the oviduct?;the;beating of the egg's cilia;the;beating of the egg's flagella;rhythmic;contractions of the oviduct;rhythmic;contractions of the uterus;the;beating of cilia in the oviduct;Question;37;of 45;In a;human male reproductive system;a;circumcision removes a portion of the scrotum.;the vas;deferens conducts sperm between the testis and epididymis.;the;sperm travel through the urethra during ejaculation.;sperm;mature in the prostate gland.;sperm;are produced in the bladder and released through the scrotum.;Question;38;of 45;A vaccine;contains __________.;a;killed pathogen;weakened;pathogen;non-infective;fragments of a pathogen;all of;the above may be used in a vaccine;Vaccines;only contain genetically-modified virus particles;Question;39;of 45;Oxygen;moves from the alveoli to the bloodstream __________.;because;the concentration of oxygen is greater in alveoli than in the blood;mainly;due to the activity of carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells;because;there is more oxygen in the blood than in the bloodstream;through;active transport through the cell membrane;to;escape from the body as a waste product;Question;40;of 45;Which of;the following is NOT a true statement about the human female?;She;produces all the eggs that she ever will before she is born.;She;will normally produce more gametes than her male counterpart.;It is;possible that more than one egg will be released at ovulation.;The;process of meiosis may take 30 to 50 years to complete.;The;ovary is the primary reproductive organ.;Question;41;of 45;Most of;the oxygen in the blood is transported by __________.;platelets;plasma;platelets;hemoglobin;serotonin;Question;42;of 45;The;correct term to describe the production of the human sperm is __________.;spermogenerator;oogenesis;spermatogenesis;sperm-production;gametogeneric;Question;43;of 45;In vitro;fertilization __________.;can be;used to select the sex of an embryo;permits;the screening of embryos for genetic defects;can use;eggs that have been frozen;all of;the above;none of;the above;Question;44;of 45;A;vasectomy __________.;prevents;the production of sperm in the testes;prevents;the production of semen;prevents;the movement of sperm into the urethra;prevents;a man from having an erection;is an;effective method to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases;Question;45;of 45;Why are;human testes located in an external sac rather than in the abdominal cavity?;to;shorten the distance that semen must travel during ejaculation;to;shorten the distance that sperm must swim during insemination;so the;testes can be kept at a constant temperature;so the;testes can be kept cooler than the body's interior;so the;testes can enlarge at sexual maturityPart3What are the;four main types of tissue? What are the characteristics of each type and how do;they function in the body? Give an example of where you would find each type in;the body.
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