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MULTIPLE CHOICE SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please;answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. The Multiple Choice section is;worth 60 points.;**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select as the best answer on;the Answer Sheet provided.;1. What is biology?;A) The study of life;B) The study of the environment;C) The study of DNA;D) The study of genetics;E) The study of the earth;2. Which of the following can be considered definitions of "theory"?;A) A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws.;B) A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large;body of observations.;C) A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared;unrelated.;D) A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural;phenomena.;E) All of the above.;3. An integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses is known as a ______.;A) fact;B) law;C) control;D) theory;E) guess;Page 2 of 17;4. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?;I. State a problem;II. Analyze and interpret data;III. Develop a hypothesis;IV. Share the results with other scientists;V. Design and perform experiment to test the hypothesis;A) I ? II -III -IV ? V;B) III ? I -V? II ?IV;C) V ? IV ?III ? II ? I;D) I ? III ? V? II ? IV;E) V ? II ?I ? III -IV;5. To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel.;Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?;A) In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the control group;that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.;B) In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the experimental group;that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.;C) In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered. In the;control group, the chosen variable is altered, however, all other variables are held constant.;D) In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.;E) Experimental and control groups experiments are identical and run in parallel to get;repeatable results.;6. The smallest unit of life is the;A) cell;B) organelle;C) macromolecule;D) atom;7.You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well defined nucleus. You conclude;the cell must a _____________________ cell.;A) prokaryotic;B) eukaryotic;C) plant;D) animal;8. All of the following are examples of elements except?;A) oxygen;B) water;C) hydrogen;D) carbon;9. Two atoms with the same atomic number, but different mass numbers are called____________.;Page 3 of 17;A) radioactive;B) isotopes;C) proteins;D) electrons;E) nuclei;10. Select the element that is not one of the four most common elements in living matter.;A) carbon;B) hydrogen;C) nitrogen;D) oxygen;E) phosphorous;11. Organic compounds consist mainly of ________ atoms.;A) oxygen;B) nitrogen;C) calcium;D) carbon;E) phosphorous;12. A substance with a pH greater than 7 is ___________, while a substance with a pH less that 7 is;A) basic, acidic;B) acidic, basic;C) basic, neutral;D) neutral, acidic;E) neutral, basic;13. The bond in which 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is a ______________ bond.;A) polar;B) hydrogen;C) ionic;D) covalent;14. The energy required for photosynthesis is provided by?;A) proteins;B) sunlight;C) chlorophyll;D) carbohydrates;E) lipids;15. The term below that includes the other terms is;A) atom;B) molecule;C) electron;D) element;16. An element has 43 protons and 50 neutrons. The atomic number of the element is;Page 4 of 17;A) 43;B) 50;C) 86;D) 93;E) 100;17. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called;A) facilitated diffusion;B) active transport;C) osmosis;D) phagocytosis;E) endocytosis;18. A dog gets many nutrients from its food including amino acids. Which of these can be built;directly using the amino acids _________________________.;A) proteins;B) carbohydrates;C) lipids;D) nucleic acids;E) glucose;19. Most carbohydrates in the human body are ___________________________.;A) used as building blocks for proteins;B) used as catalysts for reactions in cells;C) consumed as a source of energy;D) not easily absorbed into the bloodstream;E) not necessary for regular bodily functions;20. A scientist removed the plasma membranes from bacteria cells in a culture. She analyzed the cell;membranes for specific molecules. Which of these was probably the most common type of;molecule present in the bacteria plasma membranes?;A) carbohydrate;B) nucleic acid;C) amino acid;D) lipid;E) ATP;21. The site of protein synthesis in the cell is ___________________________.;A) the mitochondria;B) the nucleus;C) the Golgi apparatus;D) the ribosomes;22. Cyanide is a poison that prevents mitochondria from using oxygen. As a result, the mitochondria;cannot produce __________.;A) lipids;Page 5 of 17;B) proteins;C) energy;D) sugars;E) nucleic acids;23. The replication of DNA ______________________________________________.;A) produces RNA molecules;B) produces completely new strands of DNA;C) produces two DNA molecules, each of which is half-"new" and half-"old" DNA;D) generates excessive DNA, which eventually causes the nucleus to divide;24. The form of RNA that is complementary to DNA and carries the code from the DNA to the site where;the protein is synthesized is ______________________________________.;A) messenger RNA;B) nuclear RNA;C) ribosomal RNA;D) transfer RNA;25. If the amounts of bases in a DNA molecule are measured, you would find that;A) A = C and G=T;B) A = G and C=T;C) T = Aand C =G;D) A = U and C=G;E) U = Cand A =G;26. In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant.The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a;woman (DD) and a man (Dd) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?;A) 0;B) 1;C) 2;D) 3;E) 4;27. Which of these statements best explains how genes and proteins are related?;A) Genes are segments of DNA that code for proteins.;B) Proteins are segments of DNA that code for genes.;C) Genes are segments of proteins that code for DNA.;D) Proteins are the building blocks of genes.;E) Genes are the building blocks of proteins.;28. Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?;A) GCGUUU;B) UAUGCG;C) ATGCGT;Page 6 of 17;D) AUGCGU;E) AAACUG;29. Information stored in DNA is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in the;form of ________.;A) lipids;B) DNA;C) RNA;D) proteins;E) carbohydrates;30. Researchers are studying slider turtles. Slider turtles hatch on the beach and travel to the sea. The;researchers discover that the larger baby turtles were more likely to survive than the smaller baby turtles.;They hypothesized that the larger turtles could move more quickly toward the water than the smaller;turtles, and therefore, the larger turtles reduced their exposure to predators.;The survival advantage for the larger baby turtles is a result of __________________________.;A) natural selection;B) genetic engineering;C) diversity;D) artificial selection;E) migration;31. The theory of natural selection states that;A) some live and some die in each generation.;B) only the largest and strongest survive.;C) random assortment of genes results in better characteristics in the following generations.;D) the best adapted individuals survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next;generation.;E) individuals that mutate in response to their environment will survive.;32. Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve are produced;A) by chance;B) as a response to environmental;C) as a response to selection pressure;D) by natural selection;E) by artificial selection;33.When a biologist studies the way organisms interact with each other and with their environment, they;are studying their____________________.;A) physiology;B) anatomy;C) chemistry;D) genetics;Page 7 of 17;E) ecology;34. In a deciduous oak forest of the American northeast, one example of an abiotic component of the;ecosystem would be ____________________________.;A) worms in the soil that feed on plant roots;B) worms in the soil that feed on dead organic matter;C) sunlight that filters through the canopy;D) animals such as deer that migrate through the forest but do not eat in the forest;E) plants and animals in the same area;35. Which of the following activities decreases greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?;A) Cutting down trees.;B) Driving gasoline powered vehicles.;C) Using electricity from coal-powered plants.;D) Planting trees.;E) Heating your home.;36. If a bird eats an insect that ate a plant, the bird would be considered a(n);A) autotroph;B) primary producer;C) primary consumer;D) secondary consumer;E) tertiary consumer;37. When energy is converted from one form to another, some of the original energy is ?lost? as;A) water;B) heat;C) electrons;D) mechanical energy;E) electrical energy;38. The statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth is;A) plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2;B) animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2;C) plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O;D) animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O;39. What do plants and animals have in common?;A) They are both heterotrophic.;B) They are both autotrophic.;C) They are both prokaryotic.;D) They are both eukaryotic.;E) The are both hydrophobic;Page 8 of 17;40. The innermost electron shell of an atom holds a maximum of ________ electrons.;A) 2;B) 4;C) 6;D) 8;E) 10;41. Elephants travel long distances in search of food. Using vibrations felt in the ground, family;members traveling separately can communicate with each other. Based on your knowledge of;evolution, the ability to communicate over long distances probably developed;A) slowly over millions of years;B) by accident;C) over a ten year period;D) as a strategy to decrease reproduction;E) as a way to communicate with humans;42. The plasma membrane is _____________________.;A) completely permeable;B) selectively permeable;C) impermeable;D) found only in eukaryotic cells;E) found only in prokaryotic cells;43. Humans are composed of ______ cells.;A) prokaryotic;B) bacterial;C) eukaryotic;D) viral;E) fungal;44. Certain fungi that are important in nutrient recycling because they release nutrients from dead;organisms back into the ecosystem are _____________________.;A) producers;B) consumers;C) decomposers;D) recyclers;E) feeders;45. Humans are ______.;A) ecosystems;B) consumers;C) decomposers;D) cells;E) producers;46. One of the end products of respiration is _____________.;Page 9 of 17;A) glucose;B) starch;C) sucrose;D) water;E) oxygen;47.A protein molecule which is denatured, has __________________________.;A) split into smaller molecules;B) changed its shape;C) combined with another molecule;D) been diluted..;48. ___________________ is the term that refers to the energy-requiring movement of a substance;across a biological membrane.;A) facilitated diffusion;B) active transport;C) osmosis;D) diffusion;E) endocytosis;49. All of the following are characteristics of life except _____________________________________.;A) growth;B) homeostasis;C) movement;D) reproduction;E) energy use;50. In the scientific method, a hypothesis __________.;A) is a statement of fact;B) makes a prediction that can be tested;C) is usually proven to be correct;D) can only be tested once;E) all of these;51. Think of the cell as a factory, in which the organelles are specialized sites of production. All cells have;a power plant, the mitochondrion. Plant cells have an additional ?reactor? for the production of usable;energy. It is called the _____.;A) golgi body;B) rough endoplasmic reticulum;C) central vacuole;D) vesicle;E) chloroplast;52.;You have formulated a hypothesis that light is necessary for seed germination.;Page 10 of 17;To test your hypothesis, one set of lettuce seeds is placed in light with warm;temperatures and adequate moisture. Another set of identical seeds is placed in;the dark under the same set of conditions. The control in the experiment is;(a) seeds in the dark;(b) seeds in the light;(c) warm temperature;(d) adequate moisture;(e) germination rate;53.;A group of medical researchers recently tested the effects of a cholesterol-lowering medication;Drug A on men who had high blood levels of cholesterol. The researchers did the following experiment;and obtained the indicated results. One group of 150 men took a tablet containing 40 mg of Drug A for 90;days, 120 of this group decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10 %. Another group of 150;men was given a tablet with no added Drug A for 90 days, 25 of these men decreased their blood levels;of cholesterol by at least 10%.;Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on;results obtained in this experiment?;A) Drug A is good for men;B) Drug A is found in the blood of men;C) men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show a decrease in cholesterol;levels in the blood;D) men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show an increase in cholesterol;levels in the blood;E) blood levels of cholesterol are not affected by oral supplementation of Drug A;54.;The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant;to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation?;(a) The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics;(b) The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics;(c) Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea;bacteria have flourished and persisted;(d) The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria;(e) both b and d;55.;Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth?;(a) Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2;(b) Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2;(c) Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O;(d) Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O;56.;A researcher planted seeds from four types of wheat (Types A, B, C, and D) in a greenhouse to;determine which type of wheat grew fastest. The plants were grown for 10 days and measured. The;results are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Type C wheat grew the fastest.;1;(a) A = 20 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 5 cm, D= 2 cm.;Page 11 of 17;2;3;4;5;(b);(c);(d);(e);A = 2 cm, B = 5 cm, C= 1 cm, D= 2 cm.;A = 22 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 25 cm, D= 4 cm.;A = 30 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 28 cm, D= 1 cm.;A = 21 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 20 cm, D= 15 cm.;Use the following information to answer questions 57 & 58 below. A group of medical researchers;recently investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering blood pressure in a group of hypertensive middleaged women. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One;group of 150 women took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks ? 95 of these women decreased their;blood pressure by at least 10% (three women from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of;150 women was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks ? 10 of these women decreased their;blood pressure by at least 10% (two women from this group dropped out of the study).;57. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?;a. the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X.;b. the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X;c. the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment;d. the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment;e. the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet;58. Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on the results;obtained in this experiment?;a. Drug X is good for hypertensive women.;b. Drug X is good for both men and women.;c. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show a decrease in blood;pressure.;d. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show an increase in blood;pressure.;e. Drug X has no effect on blood pressure.;59.A proton has ____ charge.;a. no;b. a neutral;c. a negative;d. a positive;60.Electrons are located;a. in the core of an atom.;b. only in complex molecules.;c. in a shell that surrounds the atom?s core.;d. in both the core and inner shell of an atom.;************************************************************************************************************;MATCHING SECTION #1;MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all;questions. Each question is worth 1 point. This Matching section is worth 10 points.;**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as;the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.;TERM or CONCEPT;Definition/Association;1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate);2. chromosome;3. crossing over;4. gamete;5. gene;6. germ cell;7.meiosis;8. mitosis;9. translation;10. transcription;A. DNA molecule with attached proteins;B. a haploid cell that combines with another;haploid cell during fertilization;C. a specific portion of a chromosome that contains;information for a particular inherited trait;D. a type of cell whose primary function is the;formation of gametes for sexual reproduction;E. an interaction during meiosis in which;chromatids exchange segments, results in genetic;recombination;F. nucleotide that drives most energy-requiring;metabolic reactions;G. the process in which ribosomes synthesize;proteins using the mRNA transcript;H. the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template;I. the type of cell division which is used in asexual;reproduction and tissue growth and repair;J. the type of cell division responsible for gamete;formation and sexual reproduction;MATCHING SECTION #2;MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all;questions. Each question is worth 1 point. This Matching section is worth 10 points.;**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as;the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.;TERM or CONCEPT;1. microtubules;2. chloroplasts;Definition/Association;A. contain enzymes for intracellular digestion;B. are primary cellular structures (or components);where proteins are assembled;3. Golgi bodies;4. DNA molecules;5. RNA molecules;6. central vacuoles;7. lysosomes;8. mitochondria;9. nucleoli;10. ribosomes;C. package cellular secretions for export;D. extract energy stored in carbohydrates;synthesize ATP, produce water and carbon dioxide;E. synthesize subunits that will be assembled into;two part ribosomes in the cytoplasm;F. translate hereditary instructions into specific;proteins;G. increase cell surface area, store substances;H. encode hereditary information;I. help distribute chromosomes to the new cells;during cell division;J. convert light energy to chemical energy stored in;the chemical bonds of glucose or starch;SHORT ANSWER SECTION;Complete ALL questions in this Short Answer Section;INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 5 points. Total points for this section is 20;points.;**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided;by your instructor.;1) Lithops, also called Stoneplants, are a type of plant that resembles little stones. These;plants have the ability to blend in with there surrounding, which affords them protection;from predators. If you were in an area containing Lithops, describe four characteristics you could identify;to distinguish these plants from the stones they mimic.;2) A population of grasshoppers in the Kansas prairie has two color phenotypes, green and;brown. Typically, the prairie receives adequate water to maintain healthy, green grass.;Assume a bird that eats grasshoppers moves into the prairie. How will this affect natural;selection of the grasshoppers? How might this change in a drought year?;3) DNA and RNA are similar yet distinct components of the cell. Describe three differences;between RNA and DNA with respect to their chemical composition and structure. Provide a;detailed description of each characteristic you chose in your response.;4) Give an example of how human activities can change the environment.;ESSAY SECTION;Complete ALL questions in this Essay Section;INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 10 points. Total points for this section is 50;points.;**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided;by your instructor.;REQUIRED QUESTIONS;1. Before bringing a new drug to the marketplace, extensive testing is done on the drug by;administering the drug to large numbers of individuals. Explain the importance of the scientific;method, sample size, controls and variable in the drug evaluation process.;2. List the four ?large molecules of life.? Identify their composition and structure, (in detail) and;describe one function they perform in the cell.;3. How can you explain the occurrence of birth defects (caused by altered genes) in children;and grandchildren of WWII atomic bomb victims, when the victims themselves were only mildly;affected?;4. During the past 50 years, more than 200 species of insects that attack crop plants have;become highly resistant to DDT and other pesticides. Based on what you have learned in this;class regarding evolution, explain the rapid and widespread evolution of resistance. Now that;DDT has been banned in the US, what do yoMULTIPLE CHOICE SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please;answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. The Multiple Choice section is;worth 60 points.;**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select as the best answer on;the Answer Sheet provided.;1. What is biology?;A) The study of life;B) The study of the environment;C) The study of DNA;D) The study of genetics;E) The study of the earth;2. Which of the following can be considered definitions of "theory"?;A) A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws.;B) A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large;body of observations.;C) A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared;unrelated.;D) A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural;phenomena.;E) All of the above.;3. An integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses is known as a ______.;A) fact;B) law;C) control;D) theory;E) guess;Page 2 of 17;4. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?;I. State a problem;II. Analyze and interpret data;III. Develop a hypothesis;IV. Share the results with other scientists;V. Design and perform experiment to test the hypothesis;A) I ? II -III -IV ? V;B) III ? I -V? II ?IV;C) V ? IV ?III ? II ? I;D) I ? III ? V? II ? IV;E) V ? II ?I ? III -IV;5. To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel.;Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?;A) In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the control group;that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.;B) In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the experimental group;that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.;C) In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered. In the;control group, the chosen variable is altered, however, all other variables are held constant.;D) In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.;E) Experimental and control groups experiments are identical and run in parallel to get;repeatable results.;6. The smallest unit of life is the;A) cell;B) organelle;C) macromolecule;D) atom;7.You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well defined nucleus. You conclude;the cell must a _____________________ cell.;A) prokaryotic;B) eukaryotic;C) plant;D) animal;8. All of the following are examples of elements except?;A) oxygen;B) water;C) hydrogen;D) carbon;9. Two atoms with the same atomic number, but different mass numbers are called____________.;Page 3 of 17;A) radioactive;B) isotopes;C) proteins;D) electrons;E) nuclei;10. Select the element that is not one of the four most common elements in living matter.;A) carbon;B) hydrogen;C) nitrogen;D) oxygen;E) phosphorous;11. Organic compounds consist mainly of ________ atoms.;A) oxygen;B) nitrogen;C) calcium;D) carbon;E) phosphorous;12. A substance with a pH greater than 7 is ___________, while a substance with a pH less that 7 is;A) basic, acidic;B) acidic, basic;C) basic, neutral;D) neutral, acidic;E) neutral, basic;13. The bond in which 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is a ______________ bond.;A) polar;B) hydrogen;C) ionic;D) covalent;14. The energy required for photosynthesis is provided by?;A) proteins;B) sunlight;C) chlorophyll;D) carbohydrates;E) lipids;15. The term below that includes the other terms is;A) atom;B) molecule;C) electron;D) element;16. An element has 43 protons and 50 neutrons. The atomic number of the element is;Page 4 of 17;A) 43;B) 50;C) 86;D) 93;E) 100;17. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called;A) facilitated diffusion;B) active transport;C) osmosis;D) phagocytosis;E) endocytosis;18. A dog gets many nutrients from its food including amino acids. Which of these can be built;directly using the amino acids _________________________.;A) proteins;B) carbohydrates;C) lipids;D) nucleic acids;E) glucose;19. Most carbohydrates in the human body are ___________________________.;A) used as building blocks for proteins;B) used as catalysts for reactions in cells;C) consumed as a source of energy;D) not easily absorbed into the bloodstream;E) not necessary for regular bodily functions;20. A scientist removed the plasma membranes from bacteria cells in a culture. She analyzed the cell;membranes for specific molecules. Which of these was probably the most common type of;molecule present in the bacteria plasma membranes?;A) carbohydrate;B) nucleic acid;C) amino acid;D) lipid;E) ATP;21. The site of protein synthesis in the cell is ___________________________.;A) the mitochondria;B) the nucleus;C) the Golgi apparatus;D) the ribosomes;22. Cyanide is a poison that prevents mitochondria from using oxygen. As a result, the mitochondria;cannot produce __________.;A) lipids;Page 5 of 17;B) proteins;C) energy;D) sugars;E) nucleic acids;23. The replication of DNA ______________________________________________.;A) produces RNA molecules;B) produces completely new strands of DNA;C) produces two DNA molecules, each of which is half-"new" and half-"old" DNA;D) generates excessive DNA, which eventually causes the nucleus to divide;24. The form of RNA that is complementary to DNA and carries the code from the DNA to the site where;the protein is synthesized is ______________________________________.;A) messenger RNA;B) nuclear RNA;C) ribosomal RNA;D) transfer RNA;25. If the amounts of bases in a DNA molecule are measured, you would find that;A) A = C and G=T;B) A = G and C=T;C) T = Aand C =G;D) A = U and C=G;E) U = Cand A =G;26. In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant.The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a;woman (DD) and a man (Dd) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?;A) 0;B) 1;C) 2;D) 3;E) 4;27. Which of these statements best explains how genes and proteins are related?;A) Genes are segments of DNA that code for proteins.;B) Proteins are segments of DNA that code for genes.;C) Genes are segments of proteins that code for DNA.;D) Proteins are the building blocks of genes.;E) Genes are the building blocks of proteins.;28. Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?;A) GCGUUU;B) UAUGCG;C) ATGCGT;Page 6 of 17;D) AUGCGU;E) AAACUG;29. Information stored in DNA is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in the;form of ________.;A) lipids;B) DNA;C) RNA;D) proteins;E) carbohydrates;30. Researchers are studying slider turtles. Slider turtles hatch on the beach and travel to the sea. The;researchers discover that the larger baby turtles were more likely to survive than the smaller baby turtles.;They hypothesized that the larger turtles could move more quickly toward the water than the smaller;turtles, and therefore, the larger turtles reduced their exposure to predators.;The survival advantage for the larger baby turtles is a result of __________________________.;A) natural selection;B) genetic engineering;C) diversity;D) artificial selection;E) migration;31. The theory of natural selection states that;A) some live and some die in each generation.;B) only the largest and strongest survive.;C) random assortment of genes results in better characteristics in the following generations.;D) the best adapted individuals survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next;generation.;E) individuals that mutate in response to their environment will survive.;32. Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve are produced;A) by chance;B) as a response to environmental;C) as a response to selection pressure;D) by natural selection;E) by artificial selection;33.When a biologist studies the way organisms interact with each other and with their environment, they;are studying their____________________.;A) physiology;B) anatomy;C) chemistry;D) genetics;Page 7 of 17;E) ecology;34. In a deciduous oak forest of the American northeast, one example of an abiotic component of the;ecosystem would be ____________________________.;A) worms in the soil that feed on plant roots;B) worms in the soil that feed on dead organic matter;C) sunlight that filters through the canopy;D) animals such as deer that migrate through the forest but do not eat in the forest;E) plants and animals in the same area;35. Which of the following activities decreases greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?;A) Cutting down trees.;B) Driving gasoline powered vehicles.;C) Using electricity from coal-powered plants.;D) Planting trees.;E) Heating your home.;36. If a bird eats an insect that ate a plant, the bird would be considered a(n);A) autotroph;B) primary producer;C) primary consumer;D) secondary consumer;E) tertiary consumer;37. When energy is converted from one form to another, some of the original energy is ?lost? as;A) water;B) heat;C) electrons;D) mechanical energy;E) electrical energy;38. The statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth is;A) plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2;B) animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2;C) plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O;D) animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O;39. What do plants and animals have in common?;A) They are both heterotrophic.;B) They are both autotrophic.;C) They are both prokaryotic.;D) They are both eukaryotic.;E) The are both hydrophobic;Page 8 of 17;40. The innermost electron shell of an atom holds a maximum of ________ electrons.;A) 2;B) 4;C) 6;D) 8;E) 10;41. Elephants travel long distances in search of food. Using vibrations felt in the ground, family;members traveling separately can communicate with each other. Based on your knowledge of;evolution, the ability to communicate over long distances probably developed;A) slowly over millions of years;B) by accident;C) over a ten year period;D) as a strategy to decrease reproduction;E) as a way to communicate with humans;42. The plasma membrane is _____________________.;A) completely permeable;B) selectively permeable;C) impermeable;D) found only in eukaryotic cells;E) found only in prokaryotic cells;43. Humans are composed of ______ cells.;A) prokaryotic;B) bacterial;C) eukaryotic;D) viral;E) fungal;44. Certain fungi that are important in nutrient recycling because they release nutrients from dead;organisms back into the ecosystem are _____________________.;A) producers;B) consumers;C) decomposers;D) recyclers;E) feeders;45. Humans are ______.;A) ecosystems;B) consumers;C) decomposers;D) cells;E) producers;46. One of the end products of respiration is _____________.;Page 9 of 17;A) glucose;B) starch;C) sucrose;D) water;E) oxygen;47.A protein molecule which is denatured, has __________________________.;A) split into smaller molecules;B) changed its shape;C) combined with another molecule;D) been diluted..;48. ___________________ is the term that refers to the energy-requiring movement of a substance;across a biological membrane.;A) facilitated diffusion;B) active transport;C) osmosis;D) diffusion;E) endocyto

 

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