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The Value Chain




The Value Chain;P 7. Soft Spot is a manufacturer of futon mattresses. Soft Spot?s mattresses arepriced at $60, but competition forces the company to offer significant discounts and rebates. As a result, the average price of the futon mattress has dropped toaround $50, and the company is losing money. Management is applying valuechain analysis to the company?s operations in an effort to reduce costs and improveproduct quality. A study by the company?s management accountant has deter-mined the following per unit costs for primary processes and support services;Primary Process Cost per Unit;Research and development $ 5.00;Design 3.00;Supply 4.00;Production 16.00;Marketing 6.00;Distribution 7.00;Customer service 1.00;Total cost per unit $42.00;Support Service Human resources $ 2.00;Information services 5.00;Management accounting 1.00;Total cost per unit $ 8.00;To generate a gross margin large enough for the company to cover its over-head costs and earn a profit, Soft Spot must lower its total cost per unit forprimary processes to no more than $32.00 and its support services to no morethan $5.00. After analyzing operations, management reached the following con-clusions about primary processes and support services;? Research and development and design are critical functions because themarket and competition require constant development of new features with ?cool? designs at lower cost. Nevertheless, management feels thatthe cost per unit of these processes must be reduced by 20 percent.;? Ten different suppliers currently provide the components for the futons.Ordering these components from just two suppliers and negotiatinglower prices could result in a savings of 15 percent.;? The futons are currently manufactured in Mali. By shifting production toChina, the unit cost of production can be lowered by 40 percent.;? Management believes that by selling to large retailers like Wal-Mart it isfeasible to lower current marketing costs by 25 percent.;? Distribution costs are already very low, but management will set a targetof reducing the cost per unit by 10 percent.;? Customer service and support to large customers are key to keeping theirbusiness. Management therefore proposes increasing the cost per unit of customer service by 20 percent.;? By outsourcing its support services, management projects a 20 percentdrop in these costs.;Required;1. Prepare a table showing the current cost per unit of primary processes andsupport services and the projected cost per unit based on management?sproposals.;2. Will management?s proposals achieve the targeted total cost per unit? Whatfurther steps should management take to reduce costs?;3. What role should the company?s support services play in the value chain analysis?;Financial Performance Measures;C 2. Tarbox Manufacturing Company makes sheet metal products for heatingand air conditioning installations. Its statements of cost of goods manufacturedand income statements for the last two years are presented below and on the nextpage.;Tarbox Manufacturing Company;Statements of Cost of Goods Manufactured;For the Years Ended December 31;This Year Last Year;Direct materials usedMaterials inventory,beginning $91,240 $93,560;Direct materials purchased(net) 987,640 959,940;Cost of direct materialsavailable for use $1,078,880 $1,053,500;Less materials inventory,ending 95,020 91,240;Cost of directmaterials used $983,860 $962,260;Direct labor 571,410 579,720;Overhead;Indirect labor $182,660 $171,980;Power 34,990 32,550;Insurance 22,430 18,530;Supervision 125,330 120,050;Depreciation 75,730 72,720;Other overhead costs 41,740 36,280;Total overhead 482,880 452,110;Total manufacturing costs $2,038,150 $1,994,090;Add work in processinventory, beginning 148,875 152,275;Total cost of work inprocess during the period $2,187,025 $2,146,365;Less work in processinventory, ending 146,750 148,875;Cost of goodsmanufactured $2,040,275 $1,997,490;Sales $2,942,960 $3,096,220;Cost of goods soldFinished;Goodsinventory, beginning $142,640 $184,820;Cost of goodsmanufactured 2,040,275 1,997,490;Cost of goodsavailable for sale $2,182,915 $2,182,310;Less finished goodsinventory, ending 186,630 142,640;Total cost of goods sold 1,996,285 2,039,670;Gross margin $946,675 $1,056,550;Selling andadministrative expenses;Sales salaries and;Commission expense $394,840 $329,480Advertising expense 116,110 194,290;Other selling expenses 82,680 72,930Administrative expenses 242,600 195,530;Total selling andadministrative expenses 836,230 792,230Income from operations $110,445 $264,320;Other revenues andexpensesInterest expense 54,160 56,815Income before incometaxes $56,285 $207,505Income taxes expense 19,137 87,586;Net income $37,148 $119,919;For the past several years, the company?s income has been declining. Youhave been asked to comment on why the ratios for Tarbox?s profitability havedeteriorated.;1. In preparing your comments, compute the following ratios for each year;a. Ratios of cost of direct materials used to total manufacturing costs,direct labor to total manufacturing costs, and total overhead to totalmanufacturing costs. (Round to one decimal place.);b. Ratios of sales salaries and commission expense, advertising expense,other selling expenses, administrative expenses, and total selling andadministrative expenses to sales. (Round to one decimal place.);c. Ratios of gross margin to sales and net income to sales. (Round to onedecimal place.);2. From your evaluation of the ratios computed in 1, state the probable causesof the decline in net income.;3. What other factors or ratios do you believe should be considered in determining the cause of the company?s decreased income?


Paper#79750 | Written in 18-Jul-2015

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